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2. Wall conditioning and ELM mitigation with boron nitride powder injection in KSTAR
- Gilson, Erik; Lee, H; Bortolon, A; Choe, W; Diallo, A; Hong, SH; Lee, HM; Maingi, R; Mansfield, DK; Nagy, A; Park, SH; Song, IW; Song, JI; Yun, SW; Nazikian, R
- Results from KSTAR powder injection experiments, in which tens of milligrams of boron nitride (BN) were dropped into low-power H-mode plasmas, show an improvement in wall conditions in subsequent discharges and, in some cases, a reduction or elimination of edge-localized modes (ELMs). Injected powder is distributed by the plasma flow and is deposited on the wall and, over the course of several discharges, was observed to gradually reduce recycling by 33%, and decrease both the ELM amplitude and frequency. This is the first demonstration of the use of BN for ELM mitigation. In all of these experiments, an Impurity Powder Dropper (IPD) was used to introduce precise, controllable amounts of the materials into ELMy H-mode KSTAR discharges. The plasma duration was between 10 s and 15 s, 𝐼𝑝 = 500 kA, 𝐵𝑇 = 1.8 T, 𝑃NBI = 1.6 MW, and 𝑃ECH = 0.6 MW. Plasma densities were between 2 and 3 × 1019 m−3. In all cases, the pre-fill and startup gas-fueling was kept constant, suggesting that the decrease in baseline D𝛼 emission is in fact due to a reduction in recycling. The results presented herein highlight the viability of powder injection for intra-shot and between-shot wall conditioning.
- Issue Date:
- September 2021
3. Observation of synergy between lower hybrid waves at two frequencies in EAST
- Choi, W.; Poli, F. M.; Li, M. H.; Baek, S. G.; Gorenlenkova, M.; Ding, B. J.; Gong, X. Z.; Chan, A.; Duan, Y. M.; Hu, J. H.; Lian, H.; Lin, S. Y.; Liu, H. Q.; Qian, J. P.; Wallace, G.; Wang, Y. M.; Zang, Q.; Zhao, H. L.
- Synergistic effects between two frequencies of lower hybrid (LH) waves—operating at 2.45 and 4.6 GHz—were observed in experiment on EAST for the first time. At low density (n_e,lin ≈ 2.0 × 10^19m^−3), simultaneous injection of a 65/35 mix of 2.45 GHz/4.6 GHz power achieved an LHCD efficiency that was 25% higher than what should be expected from the linear combination of the two sources. The experiment was interpreted with time-dependent simulations, using the equilibrium and transport solver TRANSP, coupled with the ray-tracing code GENRAY and the Fokker-Planck solver CQL3D. For each discharge, profiles of current and hard x-ray from simulation and measurement agree within uncertainties. An examination of the electron distribution function indicates that the LH synergy is supported by the increased width of the LH resonance plateau in the simultaneous injection case compared to independent injection.
- Issue Date:
- June 2021