Schwartz, Jacob A.; Ricks, Wilson; Kolemen, Egemen; Jenkins, Jesse D.
Fusion could be a part of future decarbonized electricity systems, but it will need to compete with other technologies.
In particular, pulsed tokamaks have a unique operational mode, and evaluating
which characteristics make them economically competitive can help select between design pathways.
Using a capacity expansion and operations model,
we determined cost thresholds for pulsed tokamaks to reach a range of penetration levels in a future decarbonized US Eastern Interconnection.
The required capital cost to reach a fusion capacity of 100 GW varied from $3000 to $7200/kW,
and the equilibrium penetration increases rapidly with decreasing cost.
The value per unit power capacity depends on the variable operational cost and on cost of its competition, particularly fission, much more than on the pulse cycle parameters.
These findings can therefore provide initial cost targets for fusion more generally in the United States.
Wang, Yin; Gilson, Erik P.; Ebrahimi, Fatima; Goodman, Jeremy; Caspary, Kyle J.; Winarto, Himawan W.; Ji, Hantao
This dataset provides the source data of figures in the main text of the paper "Identification of a non-axisymmetric mode in laboratory experiments searching for standard magnetorotational instability" accepted by Nature Communications.
Liquid metal can create a renewable protective surface on plasma facing components (PFC), with an additional advantage of deuterium pumping and the prospect of tritium extraction if liquid lithium (LL) is used and maintained below 450 C, the temperature above which LL vapor pressure begins to contaminate the plasma. LM can also be utilized as an efficient coolant, driven by the Lorentz force created with the help of the magnetic field in fusion devices. Capillary porous systems can serve as a conduit of LM and simultaneously provide stabilization of the LM flow, protecting against spills into the plasma. Recently a combination of a fast-flowing LM cooling system with a porous plasma facing wall (CPSF) was investigated [Khodak and Maingi (2021)]. The system takes an advantage of a magnetohydrodynamics velocity profile, as well as attractive LM properties to promote efficient heat transfer from the plasma to the LL at low pumping energy cost, relative to the incident heat flux on the PFC. In case of a disruption leading to excessive heat flux from the plasma to the LM PFCs, LL evaporation can stabilize the PFC surface temperature, due to high evaporation heat and apparent vapor shielding. The proposed CPSF was optimized analytically for the conditions of a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility [Kessel et al. (2019)]: 10T toroidal field and 10 MW/m2 peak incident heat flux. Computational fluid dynamics analysis confirmed that a CPSF system with 2.5 mm square channels can pump enough LL so that no additional coolant is needed.
B. Frances Kraus; Gao, Lan; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P. C.; Hollinger, R.; Wang, Shoujun; Song, Huanyu; Nedbailo, R.; Rocca, J. J.; Mancini, R. C.; MacDonald, M. J.; Beatty, C. B.; Shepherd, R.
A high-resolution x-ray spectrometer was coupled with an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to produce time-resolved line shape spectra measured from hot, solid-density plasmas. A Bragg crystal was placed near a laser-produced plasma to maximize throughput; alignment tolerances were established by raytracing. The streak camera produced single-shot time-resolved spectra, heavily sloped due to photon time-of-flight differences, with sufficient reproducibility to accumulate photon statistics. The images are time-calibrated by the slope of streaked spectra and dewarped to generate spectra emitted at different times defined at the source. The streaked spectra demonstrate the evolution of spectral shoulders and other features on ps timescales, showing the feasibility of plasma parameter measurements on the rapid timescales necessary to study high-energy-density plasmas.
Hill, K. W.; Gao, L.; Kraus, B. F.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P. C.; Pablant, N. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Thorn, D. B.; Chen, H.; Kauffman, R. L.; Liedahl, D. A.; MacDonald, M. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Scott, H. A.; Stoupin, S.; Doron, R.; Stambulchik, E.; Maron, Y.; Lahmann, B.
Numerical data used to draw the figures in the manuscript
Schwartz, Jacob A.; Nelson, A. O.; Kolemen, Egemen
Shaping a tokamak plasma to have a negative triangularity may allow operation in an ELM-free L-mode regime and with a larger strike-point radius, ameliorating divertor power-handling requirements. However, the shaping has a potential drawback in the form of a lower no-wall ideal beta limit, found using the MHD codes CHEASE and DCON. Using the new fusion systems code FAROES, we construct a steady-state DEMO2 reactor model. This model is essentially zero-dimensional and neglects variations in physical mechanisms like turbulence, confinement, and radiative power limits, which could have a substantial impact on the conclusions deduced herein. Keeping its shape otherwise constant, we alter the triangularity and compute the effects on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). If the tokamak is limited to a fixed B field, then unless other means to increase performance (such as reduced turbulence, improved current drive efficiency or higher density operation) can be leveraged, a negative-triangularity reactor is strongly disfavored in the model due to lower \beta_N limits at negative triangularity, which leads to tripling of the LCOE. However, if the reactor is constrained by divertor heat fluxes and not by magnet engineering, then a negative-triangularity reactor with higher B0 could be favorable: we find a class of solutions at negative triangularity with lower peak heat flux and lower LCOE than those of the equivalent positive triangularity reactors.