Mondal, Shanka Subhra; Webb, Taylor; Cohen, Jonathan
A dataset of Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM)-like problems using realistically rendered
3D shapes, based on source code from CLEVR (a popular visual-question-answering dataset) (Johnson, J., Hariharan, B., Van Der Maaten, L., Fei-Fei, L., Lawrence Zitnick, C., & Girshick, R. (2017). Clevr: A diagnostic dataset for compositional language and elementary visual reasoning. In Proceedings of the IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition (pp. 2901-2910)).
Microscopy images are part of a paper entitled "Structured foraging of soil predators unveils functional responses to bacterial defenses" by Fernando Rossine, Gabriel Vercelli, Corina Tarnita, and Thomas Gregor. For detailed acquisition methods see the paper. Experiments were performed between 2019 and 2020 at Princeton University. Two types of images are provided, macroscopic and microscopic widefiled Images. Macroscopic images all show Petri dishes covered in fluorescent bacteria being consumed by amoebae. Images are shown for D. discoideum, P. violaceum, and A. castellanii. Images depicting drug treatments (Nystatin and Fluorouracil) were obtained using D. discoideum. Images used for the creation of a profile were all taken within 30 minutes of each other. Within each directory numbered images are independent replicates. The raw video directory contains time series for dishes under drug treatments. Each numbered folder is a sequence of photos (taken 30 minutes apart of each other) of a single dish. Microscopic images all show amoebae consuming bacteria on a petri dish. The 45 minute videos show either edge cells (located at the edge of amoebae colonies), or inner cells (located 2.5 millimeters towards the center of the colony, from the edge). Videos are confocal stacks, with bacteria showing in green and amoebae appearing as black holes within the bacterial lawn. As was for the macroscopic images, images are shown for D. discoideum, P. violaceum, and A. castellanii. Images depicting drug treatments (Nystatin and Fluorouracil) were obtained using D. discoideum.
The dataset contains the model file for the Global Adjoint Tomography Model 25 (GLAD-M25). The model file contains parameters defined on the spectral-element mesh and is recommend to be used in SPECFEM3D GLOBE for seismic wave simulation at the global scale.
There has been considerable recent interest in the high-pressure behavior of silicon carbide, a potential major constituent of carbon-rich exoplanets. In this work, the atomic-level structure of SiC was determined through in situ X-ray diffraction under laser-driven ramp compression up to 1.5 TPa; stresses more than seven times greater than previous static and shock data. Here we show that the B1-type structure persists over this stress range and we have constrained its equation of state (EOS). Using this data we have determined the first experimentally based mass-radius curves for a hypothetical pure SiC planet. Interior structure models are constructed for planets consisting of a SiC-rich mantle and iron-rich core. Carbide planets are found to be ~10% less dense than corresponding terrestrial planets.
Geyman, Emily C.; Wu, Ziman; Nadeau, Matthew D.; Edmonsond, Stacey; Turner, Andrew; Purkis, Sam J.; Howes, Bolton; Dyer, Blake; Ahm, Anne-Sofie C.; Yao, Nan; Deutsch, Curtis A.; Higgins, John A.; Stolper, Daniel A.; Maloof, Adam C.
Carbonate mud represents one of the most important geochemical archives for reconstructing ancient climatic, environmental, and evolutionary change from the rock record. Mud also represents a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Yet, there remains no consensus about how and where carbonate mud is formed. In this contribution, we present new geochemical data that bear on this problem, including stable isotope and minor and trace element data from carbonate sources in the modern Bahamas such as ooids, corals, foraminifera, and green algae.
Data set corresponding to "NAPS: Integrating pose estimation and tag-based tracking." This dataset contains the corresponding videos, tracking scripts, and SLEAP models along with SLEAP, NAPS, and ArUco tracking results.
The item included here is a collection of wave profiles collected and presented in the accompanying paper: Rucks, M. J., Winey, J. M., Toyoda, T., Gupta, Y. M., & Duffy, T. S. (in review). "Shock compression of fluorapatite to 120 GPa" Submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets.
This dataset includes individual CIF files with the refined structure of fluorapatite under compression to 61 GPa. The structures have been discussed in detail in the accompanying manuscript "Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of fluorapatite to 61 GPa"
This archive contains spike trains simultaneously recorded from ganglion cells in the tiger salamander retina with a multi-electrode array while viewing a repeated natural movie clip. These data have been analyzed in previous papers, notably Puchalla et al. Neuron 2005 and Schneidman et al. Nature 2006.
In our study, we compare the three dimensional (3D) morphologic characteristics of Earth's first reef-building animals (archaeocyath sponges) with those of modern, photosynthetic corals. Within this repository are the 3D image data products for both groups of animals. The archaeocyath images were produced through serial grinding and imaging with the Grinding, Imaging, and Reconstruction Instrument at Princeton University. The images in this repository are the downsampled data products used in our study, and the full resolution (>2TB) image stacks are available upon request from the author. For the coral image data, the computed tomography (CT) images of all samples are included at full resolution. Also included in this repository are the manual and automated outline coordinates of the archaeocyath and coral branches, which can be directly used for morphological study.
Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is of zoonotic origin. Evolutionary analyses assessing whether coronaviruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 infected ancestral species of modern-day animal hosts could be useful in identifying additional reservoirs of potentially dangerous coronaviruses. We reasoned that if a clade of species has been repeatedly exposed to a virus, then their proteins relevant for viral entry may exhibit adaptations that affect host susceptibility or response. We perform comparative analyses across the mammalian phylogeny of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, in order to uncover evidence for selection acting at its binding interface with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We uncover that in rodents there is evidence for adaptive amino acid substitutions at positions comprising the ACE2-spike interaction interface, whereas the variation within ACE2 proteins in primates and some other mammalian clades is not consistent with evolutionary adaptations. We also analyze aminopeptidase N (APN), the receptor for the human coronavirus 229E, a virus that causes the common cold, and find evidence for adaptation in primates. Altogether, our results suggest that the rodent and primate lineages may have had ancient exposures to viruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E, respectively. Included in this repository are the instructions and corresponding code required to build the dataset and run the analysis in the manuscript.
Martin, Nicholas R; Blackman, Edith; Bratton, Benjamin P; Chase, Katelyn J; Bartlett, Thomas M; Gitai, Zemer
Bacterial species have diverse cell shapes that enable motility, colonization, and virulence. The cell wall defines bacterial shape and is primarily built by two cytoskeleton-guided synthesis machines, the elongasome and the divisome. However, the mechanisms producing complex shapes, like the curved-rod shape of Vibrio cholerae, are incompletely defined. Previous studies have reported that species-specific regulation of cytoskeleton-guided machines enables formation of complex bacterial shapes such as cell curvature and cellular appendages. In contrast, we report that CrvA and CrvB are sufficient to induce complex cell shape autonomously of the cytoskeleton in V. cholerae. The autonomy of the CrvAB module also enables it to induce curvature in the Gram-negative species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Caulobacter crescentus, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Using inducible gene expression, quantitative microscopy, and biochemistry we show that CrvA and CrvB circumvent the need for patterning via cytoskeletal elements by regulating each other to form an asymmetrically-localized, periplasmic structure that directly binds to the cell wall. The assembly and disassembly of this periplasmic structure enables dynamic changes in cell shape. Bioinformatics indicate that CrvA and CrvB may have diverged from a single ancestral hybrid protein. Using fusion experiments in V. cholerae, we find that a synthetic CrvA/B hybrid protein is sufficient to induce curvature on its own, but that expression of two distinct proteins, CrvA and CrvB, promotes more rapid curvature induction. We conclude that morphological complexity can arise independently of cell shape specification by the core cytoskeleton-guided synthesis machines.
The carbon isotopic (δ13C) composition of shallow-water carbonates often is interpreted to reflect the δ13C of the global ocean and is used as a proxy for changes in the global carbon cycle. However, local platform processes, in addition to meteoric and marine diagenesis, may decouple carbonate δ13C from that of the global ocean. To shed light on the extent to which changing sediment grain composition may produce δ13C shifts in the stratigraphic record, we present new δ13C measurements of benthic foraminifera, solitary corals, calcifying green algae, ooids, coated grains, and lime mud from the modern Great Bahama Bank (GBB). This survey of a modern carbonate environment reveals δ13C variability comparable to the largest δ13C excursions in the last two billion years of Earth history.
The history of organismal evolution, seawater chemistry, and paleoclimate is recorded in layers of carbonate sedimentary rock. Meter-scale cyclic stacking patterns in these carbonates often are interpreted as representing sea level change. A reliable sedimentary proxy for eustasy would be profoundly useful for reconstructing paleoclimate, since sea level responds to changes in temperature and ice volume. However, the translation from water depth to carbonate layering has proven difficult, with recent surveys of modern shallow water platforms revealing little correlation between carbonate facies (i.e., grain size, sedimentary bed forms, ecology) and water depth. We train a convolutional neural network with satellite imagery and new field observations from a 3,000 km2 region northwest of Andros Island (Bahamas) to generate a facies map with 5 m resolution. Leveraging a newly-published bathymetry for the same region, we test the hypothesis that one can extract a signal of water depth change, not simply from individual facies, but from sequences of facies transitions analogous to vertically stacked carbonate strata. Our Hidden Markov Model (HMM) can distinguish relative sea level fall from random variability with ∼90% accuracy. Finally, since shallowing-upward patterns can result from local (autogenic) processes in addition to forced mechanisms such as eustasy, we search for statistical tools to diagnose the presence or absence of external forcings on relative sea level. With a new data-driven forward model that simulates how modern facies mosaics evolve to stack strata, we show how different sea level forcings generate characteristic patterns of cycle thicknesses in shallow carbonates, providing a new tool for quantitative reconstruction of ancient sea level conditions from the geologic record.
The prevalence of ooids in the stratigraphic record, and their association with shallow-water carbonate environments, make ooids an important paleoenvironmental indicator. Recent advances in the theoretical understanding of ooid morphology, along with empirical studies from Turks and Caicos, Great Salt Lake, and The Bahamas, have demonstrated that the morphology of ooids is indicative of depositional environment and hydraulic conditions. To apply this knowledge from modern environments to the stratigraphic record of Earth history, researchers measure the size and shape of lithified ooids on two-dimensional surfaces (i.e., thin sections or polished slabs), often assuming that random 2D slices intersect the nuclei and that the orientation of the ooids is known. Here we demonstrate that these assumptions rarely are true, resulting in errors of up to 35% on metrics like major axis length. We present a method for making 3D reconstructions by serial grinding and imaging, which enables accurate measurement of the morphology of individual ooids within an oolite, as well as the sorting and porosity of a sample. We also provide three case studies that use the morphology of ooids in oolites to extract environmental information. Each case study demonstrates that 2D measurements can be useful if the environmental signal is large relative to the error from 2D measurements. However, 3D measurements substantially improve the accuracy and precision of environmental interpretations. This study focuses on oolites, but errors from 2D measurements are not unique to oolites; this method can be used to extract accurate grain and porosity measurements from any lithified granular sample.
This setup mimics ice lying above the drainage system. In the experiment, a fluid-filled blister is generated via liquid injection into the interface between a transparent elastic layer and a porous substrate. After injection of liquid, the fluid permeates from the blister through the porous substrate, the blister volume V(t) relaxes exponentially with time. Our lab experiments show that varying the permeability of the porous substrate k significantly impacts the relaxation timescale in the experiments.
Monitoring the attention of others is fundamental to social cognition. Most of the literature on the topic assumes that our social cognitive machinery is tuned specifically to the gaze direction of others as a proxy for attention. This standard assumption reduces attention to an externally visible parameter. Here we show that this assumption is wrong and a deeper, more meaningful representation is involved. We presented subjects with two cues about the attentional state of a face: direction of gaze and emotional expression. We tested whether people relied predominantly on one cue, the other, or both. If the traditional view is correct, then the gaze cue should dominate. Instead, people employed a variety of strategies, some relying on gaze, some on expression, and some on an integration of cues. We also assessed people’s social cognitive ability using two, independent, standard tests. If the traditional view is correct, then social cognitive ability, as assessed by the independent tests, should correlate with the degree to which people successfully use the gaze cue to judge the attention state of the face. Instead, social cognitive ability correlated best with the degree to which people successfully integrated the cues together, instead of with the use of any one specific cue. The results suggest a rethink of a fundamental component of social cognition: monitoring the attention of others involves constructing a deep model that is informed by a combination of cues. Attention is a rich process and monitoring the attention of others involves a similarly rich representation.
Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Landsea, Christopher; Zhang, Wei; Villarini, Gabriele; Knutson, Thomas
These are the data and scripts supporting the manuscript: Vecchi, Landsea, Zhang, Villarini and Knutson (2021): Changes in Atlantic Major Hurricane Frequency Since the Late-19th Century. Nature Communications.
Baldwin, Jane W; Dessy, Jay Benjamin; Vecchi, Gabriel A; Oppenheimer, Michael; Jia, Liwei; Gudgel, Richard G; Paffendorf, Karen
This data is compiled to support a publication in the journal Earth's Future: Baldwin et al 2019 "Temporally Compound Heat Waves and Global Warming: An Emerging Hazard".
The GCM GFDL CM2.5-FLOR was used to produce the raw climate model data. The model code for FLOR is freely available and can be downloaded at https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/cm2-5-and-flor/. Code used to calculate the derived heat wave statistics data and produce figures in the paper is available at https://github.com/janewbaldwin/Compound-Heat-Waves
The heat wave statistics derived output for only one definition is provided (daily minimum temperature, 90th percentile threshold, temporal structure 3114) which is the definition used the most in the paper figures. Statistics for the other definitions can be created by running the HWSTATS code provided in the corresponding github folder, which includes python scripts which do the analysis and PBS job scheduling and submission scripts which show how to run the python scripts. For more information on this, please see the github readme.
Chang, Claire H. C.; Lazaridi, Christina; Yeshurun, Yaara; Norman, Kenneth A.; Hasson, Uri
This study examined how the brain dynamically updates event representations by integrating new information over multiple minutes while segregating irrelevant input. A professional writer custom-designed a narrative with two independent storylines, interleaving across minute-long segments (ABAB). In the last (C) part, characters from the two storylines meet and their shared history is revealed. Part C is designed to induce the spontaneous recall of past events, upon the recurrence of narrative motifs from A/B, and to shed new light on them. Our fMRI results showed storyline-specific neural patterns, which were reinstated (i.e. became more active) during storyline transitions. This effect increased along the processing timescale hierarchy, peaking in the default mode network. Similarly, the neural reinstatement of motifs was found during part C. Furthermore, participants showing stronger motif reinstatement performed better in integrating A/B and C events, demonstrating the role of memory reactivation in information integration over intervening irrelevant events.
In the attention schema theory, the brain constructs a model of attention, the attention schema, to aid in the endogenous control of attention. Growing behavioral evidence appears to support this proposal. However, a central question remains: does a controller of attention actually benefit by having access to an attention schema? We constructed an artificial, deep Q-learning, neural network agent that was trained to control a simple form of visuospatial attention, tracking a stimulus with its attention spotlight in order to solve a catch task. The agent was tested with and without access to an attention schema. In both conditions, the agent received sufficient information such that it should, theoretically, be able to learn the task. We found that with an attention schema present, the agent learned to control its attention spotlight and learned the catch task to a high degree of performance. Once the agent learned, if the attention schema was disabled, the agent could no longer perform effectively. If the attention schema was removed before learning began, the agent was drastically impaired at learning. The results show how the presence of even a simple attention schema provides a profound benefit to a controller of attention. We interpret these results as supporting the central argument of AST: the brain evolved an attention schema because of its practical benefit in the endogenous control of attention.
Hogikyan, Allison; Resplandy, Laure; Yang, Wenchang; Fueglistaler, Stephan
Dataset constructed from GFDL-FLOR preindustrial control experiment run by Wenchang Yang (firstname.lastname@example.org) on Princeton University's tiger CPU. Processing by Allison Hogikyan (email@example.com) on Princeton University's tigress data processing node. June 2021.
Martin, James K; Sheehan, Joseph P; Bratton, Benjamin P; Moore, Gabriel M; Mateus, André; Li, Sophia Hsin-Jung; Kim, Hahn; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Typas, Athanasios; Savitski, Mikhail M; Wilson, Maxwell Z; Gitai, Zemer
The rise of antibiotic resistance and declining discovery of new antibiotics have created a global health crisis. Of particular concern, no new antibiotic classes have been approved for treating Gram-negative pathogens in decades. Here, we characterize a compound, SCH-79797, that kills both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria through a unique dual-targeting mechanism of action (MoA) with undetectably-low resistance frequencies. To characterize its MoA, we combined quantitative imaging, proteomic, genetic, metabolomic, and cell-based assays. This pipeline demonstrates that SCH-79797 has two independent cellular targets, folate metabolism and bacterial membrane integrity, and outperforms combination treatments in killing MRSA persisters. Building on the molecular core of SCH-79797, we developed a derivative, Irresistin-16, with increased potency and showed its efficacy against Neisseria gonorrheae in a mouse vaginal infection model. This promising antibiotic lead suggests that combining multiple MoAs onto a single chemical scaffold may be an underappreciated approach to targeting challenging bacterial pathogens.
Wilterson, Andrew; Nastase, Samuel; Bio, Branden; Guterstam, Arvid; Graziano, Michael
The attention schema theory (AST) posits a specific relationship between subjective awareness and attention, in which awareness is the control model that the brain uses to aid in the endogenous control of attention. We proposed that the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is involved in that interaction between awareness and attention. In previous experiments, we developed a behavioral paradigm in human subjects to manipulate awareness and attention. The paradigm involved a visual cue that could be used to guide a shift of attention to a target stimulus. In task 1, subjects were aware of the visual cue, and their endogenous control mechanism was able to use the cue to help control attention. In task 2, subjects were unaware of the visual cue, and their endogenous control mechanism was no longer able to use it to control attention, even though the cue still had a measurable effect on other aspects of behavior. Here we tested the two tasks while scanning brain activity in human volunteers. We predicted that the right TPJ would be active in relation to the cue in task 1, but not in task 2. This prediction was confirmed. The right TPJ was active in relation to the cue in task 1; it was not measurably active in task 2; the difference was significant. In our interpretation, the right TPJ is involved in a complex interaction in which awareness aids in the control of attention.
This dataset is a sequence of laser-induced fluorescence images of a dye injected in a channel flow with canopy-like stainless steel rods simulating a vegetation canopy stand. The data is acquired close to the channel bottom at z/h=0.2, where z is the height referenced to the channel bed and h is the canopy height. The dataset provides spatial distribution of scalar concentration in a plane parallel to the channel bed. The data has been used (but the data itself has not been published or available to the public) in previous work. The references are: Ghannam, K., Poggi, D., Porporato, A., & Katul, G. (2015). The spatio-temporal statistical structure and ergodic behaviour of scalar turbulence within a rod canopy. Boundary-Layer Meteorology,157(3), 447–460. Ghannam, K, Poggi, D., Bou-Zeid, E., Katul, G. (2020). Inverse cascade evidenced by information entropy of passive scalars in submerged canopy flows. Geophysical Research Letters (accepted).
Pacheco, Diego A; Thiberge, Stephan; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios; Murthy, Mala
Sensory pathways are typically studied starting at receptor neurons and following postsynaptic neurons into the brain. However, this leads to a bias in analysis of activity towards the earliest layers of processing. Here, we present new methods for volumetric neural imaging with precise across-brain registration, to characterize auditory activity throughout the entire central brain of Drosophila and make comparisons across trials, individuals, and sexes. We discover that auditory activity is present in most central brain regions and in neurons responsive to other modalities. Auditory responses are temporally diverse, but the majority of activity is tuned to courtship song features. Auditory responses are stereotyped across trials and animals in early mechanosensory regions, becoming more variable at higher layers of the putative pathway, and this variability is largely independent of spontaneous movements. This study highlights the power of using an unbiased, brain-wide approach for mapping the functional organization of sensory activity.
Taylor, Jenny A.; Bratton, Benjamin P.; Sichel, Sophie R.; Blair, Kris M.; Jacobs, Holly M.; DeMeester, Kristen E.; Kuru, Erkin; Gray, Joe; Biboy, Jacob; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Grimes, Catherine L.; Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Salama, Nina R.
Helical cell shape is necessary for efficient stomach colonization by Helicobacter pylori, but the molecular mechanisms for generating helical shape remain unclear. We show that the helical centerline pitch and radius of wild-type H. pylori cells dictate surface curvatures of considerably higher positive and negative Gaussian curvatures than those present in straight- or curved-rod bacteria. Quantitative 3D microscopy analysis of short pulses with either N-acetylmuramic acid or D-alanine metabolic probes showed that cell wall growth is enhanced at both sidewall curvature extremes. Immunofluorescence revealed MreB is most abundant at negative Gaussian curvature, while the bactofilin CcmA is most abundant at positive Gaussian curvature. Strains expressing CcmA variants with altered polymerization properties lose helical shape and associated positive Gaussian curvatures. We thus propose a model where CcmA and MreB promote PG synthesis at positive and negative Gaussian curvatures, respectively, and that this patterning is one mechanism necessary for maintaining helical shape.
Kim, Donghoon; Tracy, Sally J.; Smith, Raymond F.; Gleason, Arianna E.; Bolme, Cindy A.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Appel, Karen; Speziable, Sergio; Wicks, June K.; Berryman, Eleanor J.; Han, Sirus K.; Schoelmerich, Markus O.; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Cunningham, Eric F.; Akin, Minta C.; Asimow, Paul D.; Eggert, Jon H.; Duffy, Thomas S.
The behavior of forsterite, Mg2SiO4, under dynamic compression is of fundamental importance for understanding its phase transformations and high-pressure behavior. Here, we have carried out an in situ X-ray diffraction study of laser-shocked poly- and single-crystal forsterite (a-, b-, and c- orientations) from 19 to 122 GPa using the Matter in Extreme Conditions end-station of the Linac Coherent Light Source. Under laser-based shock loading, forsterite does not transform to the high-pressure equilibrium assemblage of MgSiO3 bridgmanite and MgO periclase, as was suggested previously. Instead, we observe forsterite and forsterite III, a metastable polymorph of Mg2SiO4, coexisting in a mixed-phase region from 33 to 75 GPa for both polycrystalline and single-crystal samples. Densities inferred from X-ray diffraction data are consistent with earlier gas-gun shock data. At higher stress, the behavior observed is sample-dependent. Polycrystalline samples undergo amorphization above 79 GPa. For - and -oriented crystals, a mixture of crystalline and amorphous material is observed to 108 GPa, whereas the -oriented crystal adopts an unknown crystal structure at 122 GPa. The Q values of the first two sharp diffraction peaks of amorphous Mg2SiO4 show a similar trend with compression as those observed for MgSiO3 glass in both recent static and laser-compression experiments. Upon release to ambient pressure, all samples retain or revert to forsterite with evidence for amorphous material also present in some cases. This study demonstrates the utility of femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray sources for probing the time evolution of high-pressure silicates through the nanosecond-scale events of shock compression and release.
Surprise signals a discrepancy between past and current beliefs. It is theorized to be linked to affective experiences, the creation of particularly resilient memories, and segmentation of the flow of experience into discrete perceived events. However, the ability to precisely measure naturalistic surprise has remained elusive. We used advanced basketball analytics to derive a quantitative measure of surprise and characterized its behavioral, physiological, and neural correlates in human subjects observing basketball games. We found that surprise was associated with segmentation of ongoing experiences, as reflected by subjectively perceived event boundaries and shifts in neocortical patterns underlying belief states. Interestingly, these effects differed by whether surprising moments contradicted or bolstered current predominant beliefs. Surprise also positively correlated with pupil dilation, activation in subcortical regions associated with dopamine, game enjoyment, and long-term memory. These investigations support key predictions from event segmentation theory and extend theoretical conceptualizations of surprise to real-world contexts.
Extrapolation -- the ability to make inferences that go beyond the scope of one's experiences -- is a hallmark of human intelligence. By contrast, the generalization exhibited by contemporary neural network algorithms is largely limited to interpolation between data points in their training corpora. In this paper, we consider the challenge of learning representations that support extrapolation. We introduce a novel visual analogy benchmark that allows the graded evaluation of extrapolation as a function of distance from the convex domain defined by the training data. We also introduce a simple technique, context normalization, that encourages representations that emphasize the relations between objects. We find that this technique enables a significant improvement in the ability to extrapolate, considerably outperforming a number of competitive techniques.
Explosive volcanic eruptions have large climate impacts, and can serve as observable tests of the climatic response to radiative forcing. Using a high resolution climate model, we contrast the climate responses to Pinatubo, with symmetric forcing, and those to Santa Maria and Agung, which had meridionally asymmetric forcing. Although Pinatubo had larger global-mean forcing, asymmetric forcing strongly shifts the latitude of tropical rainfall features, leading to larger local precipitation/TC changes. For example, North Atlantic TC activity over is enhanced/reduced by SH-forcing (Agung)/NH-forcing (Santa Maria), but changes little in response to the Pinatubo forcing. Moreover, the transient climate sensitivity estimated from the response to Santa Maria is 20% larger than that from Pinatubo or Agung. This spread in climatic impacts of volcanoes needs to be considered when evaluating the role of volcanoes in global and regional climate, and serves to contextualize the well-observed response to Pinatubo.
Antony, James W.; Cheng, Larry Y.; Brooks, Paula P.; Paller, Ken A.; Norman, Kenneth A.
Competition between memories can cause weakening of those memories. Here we investigated memory competition during sleep in human participants by presenting auditory cues that had been linked to two distinct picture-location pairs during wake. We manipulated competition during learning by requiring participants to rehearse picture-location pairs associated with the same sound either competitively (choosing to rehearse one over the other, leading to greater competition) or separately; we hypothesized that greater competition during learning would lead to greater competition when memories were cued during sleep. With separate-pair learning, we found that cueing benefited spatial retention. With competitive-pair learning, no benefit of cueing was observed on retention, but cueing impaired retention of well-learned pairs (where we expected strong competition). During sleep, post-cue beta power (16–30 Hz) indexed competition and predicted forgetting, whereas sigma power (11–16 Hz) predicted subsequent retention. Taken together, these findings show that competition between memories during learning can modulate how they are consolidated during sleep.
Antony, James W.; Piloto, Luis; Wang, Margaret; Brooks, Paula P.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Paller, Ken A.
The stability of long-term memories is enhanced by reactivation during sleep. Correlative evidence has linked memory reactivation with thalamocortical sleep spindles, although their functional role is not fully understood. Our initial study replicated this correlation and also demonstrated a novel rhythmicity to spindles, such that a spindle is more likely to occur approximately 3–6 s following a prior spindle. We leveraged this rhythmicity to test the role of spindles in memory by using real-time spindle tracking to present cues within versus just after the presumptive refractory period; as predicted, cues presented just after the refractory period led to better memory. Our findings demonstrate a precise temporal link between sleep spindles and memory reactivation. Moreover, they reveal a previously undescribed neural mechanism whereby spindles may segment sleep into two distinct substates: prime opportunities for reactivation and gaps that segregate reactivation events.
Berryman, Eleanor J.; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Yogendra M.; Duffy, Thomas S.
Stishovite (rutile-type SiO2) is the archetype of dense silicates and may occur in post-garnet eclogitic rocks at lower-mantle conditions. Sound velocities in stishovite are fundamental to understanding its mechanical and thermodynamic behavior at high pressure and temperature. Here, we use plate-impact experiments combined with velocity interferometry to determine the stress, density, and longitudinal sound speed in stishovite formed during shock compression of fused silica at 44 GPa and above. The measured sound speeds range from 12.3(8) km/s at 43.8(8) GPa to 9.8(4) km/s at 72.7(11) GPa. The decrease observed at 64 GPa reacts a decrease in the shear modulus of stishovite, likely due to the onset of melting. By 72 GPa, the measured sound speed agrees with the theoretical bulk sound speed indicating loss of all shear stiffness due to complete melting. Our sound velocity results provide direct evidence for shock-induced melting, in agreement with previous pyrometry data.
Pereira, Talmo D.; Aldarondo, Diego E.; Willmore, Lindsay; Kislin, Mikhail; Wang, Samuel S.-H.; Murthy, Mala; Shaevitz, Joshua W.
Recent work quantifying postural dynamics has attempted to define the repertoire of behaviors performed by an animal. However, a major drawback to these techniques has been their reliance on dimensionality reduction of images which destroys information about which parts of the body are used in each behavior. To address this issue, we introduce a deep learning-based method for pose estimation, LEAP (LEAP Estimates Animal Pose). LEAP automatically predicts the positions of animal body parts using a deep convolutional neural network with as little as 10 frames of labeled data for training. This framework consists of a graphical interface for interactive labeling of body parts and software for training the network and fast prediction on new data (1 hr to train, 185 Hz predictions). We validate LEAP using videos of freely behaving fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and track 32 distinct points on the body to fully describe the pose of the head, body, wings, and legs with an error rate of <3% of the animal's body length. We recapitulate a number of reported findings on insect gait dynamics and show LEAP's applicability as the first step in unsupervised behavioral classification. Finally, we extend the method to more challenging imaging situations (pairs of flies moving on a mesh-like background) and movies from freely moving mice (Mus musculus) where we track the full conformation of the head, body, and limbs.
Rafidi, Nicole S; Hulbert, Justin C; Brooks, Paula P; Norman, Kenneth A
Repeated testing (as opposed to repeated study) leads to improved long-term memory retention, but the mechanism underlying this improvement remains controversial. In this work, we test the hypothesis that retrieval practice benefits subsequent recall by reducing competition from related memories. This hypothesis implies that the degree of reduction in competition between retrieval practice attempts should predict subsequent memory for the practiced items. To test this prediction, we collected electroencephalography (EEG) data across two sessions. In the first session, participants practiced selectively retrieving exemplars from superordinate semantic categories (high competition), as well as retrieving the names of the superordinate categories from exemplars (low competition). In the second session, participants repeatedly studied and were then tested on Swahili-English vocabulary. One week after session two, participants were again tested on the vocabulary. We trained a within-subject classifier on the data from session one to distinguish high and low competition states. We then used this classifier to measure competition across multiple retrieval practice attempts in the second session. The degree to which competition decreased for a given vocabulary word predicted whether that item was subsequently remembered in the third session. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that repeated testing improves retention by reducing competition.
Amazonian deforestation causes systematic changes in regional dry season precipitation. Some of these changes at contemporary large scales (a few hundreds of kilometers) of deforestation have been associated with a ‘dynamical mesoscale circulation’, induced by the replacement of rough forest with smooth pasture. In terms of decadal averages, this dynamical mechanism yields increased precipitation in downwind regions and decreased precipitation in upwind regions of deforested areas. Daily, seasonal, and interannual variations in this phenomenon may exist, but have not yet been identified or explained. This study uses observations and numerical simulations to develop relationships between the dynamical mechanism and the local- and continental-scale atmospheric conditions across a range of time scales. It is found that the strength of the dynamical mechanism is primarily controlled by the regional-scale thermal and dynamical conditions of the boundary layer, and not by the continental- and global-scale atmospheric state. Lifting condensation level and wind speed within the boundary layer have large and positive correlations with the strength of the dynamical mechanism. The strength of these relationships depends on time scale and is strongest over the seasonal cycle. Overall, the dynamical mechanism is found to be strongest during times when the atmosphere is relatively stable. Hence, for contemporary large scales of deforestation this phenomenon is found to be the prevalent convective triggering mechanism during the dry and parts of transition seasons (especially during the dry-to-wet transition), significantly affecting the hydroclimate during this period.
Small changes in word choice can lead to dramatically different interpretations of narratives. How does the brain accumulate and integrate such local changes to construct unique neural representations for different stories? In this study we created two distinct narratives by changing only a few words in each sentence (e.g. “he” to “she” or “sobbing” to “laughing”) while preserving the grammatical structure across stories. We then measured changes in neural responses between the two stories. We found that the differences in neural responses between the two stories gradually increased along the hierarchy of processing timescales. For areas with short integration windows, such as early auditory cortex, the differences in neural responses between the two stories were relatively small. In contrast, in areas with the longest integration windows at the top of the hierarchy, such as the precuneus, temporal parietal junction, and medial frontal cortices, there were large differences in neural responses between stories. Furthermore, this gradual increase in neural difference between the stories was highly correlated with an area’s ability to integrate information over time. Amplification of neural differences did not occur when changes in words did not alter the interpretation of the story (e.g. “sobbing” to “crying”). Our results demonstrate how subtle differences in words are gradually accumulated and amplified along the cortical hierarchy as the brain constructs a narrative over time.
Khanna, Jaya; Medvigy, David; Fueglistaler, Stephan; Walko, Robert
More than 20% Amazon rainforest has been cleared in the past three decades triggering important hydroclimatic changes. Small-scale (~few kilometers) deforestation in the 1980s has caused thermally-triggered atmospheric circulations that increase regional cloudiness and precipitation frequency. However, these circulations are predicted to diminish as deforestation increases. Here we use multi-decadal satellite records and numerical model simulations to show a regime shift in the regional hydroclimate accompanying increasing deforestation in Rondônia, Brazil. Compared to the 1980s, present-day deforested areas in downwind western Rondônia are found to be wetter than upwind eastern deforested areas during the local dry season. The resultant precipitation change in the two regions is approximately ±25% of the deforested area mean. Meso-resolution simulations robustly reproduce this transition when forced with increasing deforestation alone, showing a negligible role of large-scale climate variability. Furthermore, deforestation-induced surface roughness reduction is found to play an essential role in the present-day dry season hydroclimate. Our study illustrates the strong scale-sensitivity of the climatic response to Amazonian deforestation and suggests that deforestation is sufficiently advanced to have caused a shift from a thermally- to a dynamically-driven hydroclimatic regime.
Bejjanki, Vikranth R.; da Silveira, Rava Azeredo; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.
Multivariate decoding methods, such as multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), are highly effective at extracting information from brain imaging data. Yet, the precise nature of the information that MVPA draws upon remains controversial. Most current theories emphasize the enhanced sensitivity imparted by aggregating across voxels that have mixed and weak selectivity. However, beyond the selectivity of individual voxels, neural variability is correlated across voxels, and such noise correlations may contribute importantly to accurate decoding. Indeed, a recent computational theory proposed that noise correlations enhance multivariate decoding from heterogeneous neural populations. Here we extend this theory from the scale of neurons to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and show that noise correlations between heterogeneous populations of voxels (i.e., voxels selective for different stimulus variables) contribute to the success of MVPA. Specifically, decoding performance is enhanced when voxels with high vs. low noise correlations (measured during rest or in the background of the task) are selected during classifier training. Conversely, voxels that are strongly selective for one class in a GLM or that receive high classification weights in MVPA tend to exhibit high noise correlations with voxels selective for the other class being discriminated against. Furthermore, we use simulations to show that this is a general property of fMRI data and that selectivity and noise correlations can have distinguishable influences on decoding. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that if there is signal in the data, the resulting above-chance classification accuracy is modulated by the magnitude of noise correlations.
Recent advances in experimental techniques have allowed the simultaneous recordings of
populations of hundreds of neurons, fostering a debate about the nature of the collective
structure of population neural activity. Much of this debate has focused on the
empirical findings of a phase transition in the parameter space of maximum entropy
models describing the measured neural probability distributions, interpreting this phase
transition to indicate a critical tuning of the neural code. Here, we instead focus on the
possibility that this is a first-order phase transition which provides evidence that the
real neural population is in a `structured', collective state. We show that this collective
state is robust to changes in stimulus ensemble and adaptive state. We find that the
pattern of pairwise correlations between neurons has a strength that is well within the
strongly correlated regime and does not require fine tuning, suggesting that this state is
generic for populations of 100+ neurons. We find a clear correspondence between the
emergence of a phase transition, and the emergence of attractor-like structure in the
inferred energy landscape. A collective state in the neural population, in which neural
activity patterns naturally form clusters, provides a consistent interpretation for our
It is well known that formation of new episodic memories depends on hippocampus, but in real-life settings (e.g., conversation), hippocampal amnesics can utilize information from several minutes earlier. What neural systems outside hippocampus might support this minutes-long retention? In this study, subjects viewed an audiovisual movie continuously for 25 min; another group viewed the movie in 2 parts separated by a 1-day delay. Understanding Part 2 depended on retrieving information from Part 1, and thus hippocampus was required in the day-delay condition. But is hippocampus equally recruited to access the same information from minutes earlier? We show that accessing memories from a few minutes prior elicited less interaction between hippocampus and default mode network (DMN) cortical regions than accessing day-old memories of identical events, suggesting that recent information was available with less reliance on hippocampal retrieval. Moreover, the 2 groups evinced
reliable but distinct DMN activity timecourses, reflecting differences in information carried in these regions when Part 1 was recent versus distant. The timecourses converged after 4 min, suggesting a time frame over which the continuous-viewing group may have relied less on hippocampal retrieval. We propose that cortical default mode regions can intrinsically retain real-life episodic information for several minutes.
Does the default mode network (DMN) reconfigure to encode information about the changing environment? This question has proven difficult, because patterns of functional connectivity reflect a mixture of stimulus-induced neural processes, intrinsic neural processes and non-neuronal noise. Here we introduce inter-subject functional correlation (ISFC), which isolates stimulus-dependent inter-regional correlations between brains exposed to the same stimulus. During fMRI, we had subjects listen to a real-life auditory narrative and to temporally scrambled versions of the narrative. We used ISFC to isolate correlation patterns within the DMN that were locked to the processing of each narrative segment and specific to its meaning within the narrative context. The momentary configurations of DMN ISFC were highly replicable across groups. Moreover, DMN coupling strength predicted memory of narrative segments. Thus, ISFC opens new avenues for linking brain network dynamics to stimulus features and behaviour.