Chronic hepatitis B (CHB), caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV), remains a major medical problem. HBV has a high propensity for progressing to chronicity and can result in severe liver disease, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. CHB patients frequently present with viral coinfection, including HIV and hepatitis delta virus. About 10% of chronic HIV carriers are also persistently infected with HBV which can result in more exacerbated liver disease. Mechanistic studies of HBV-induced immune responses and pathogenesis, which could be significantly influenced by HIV infection, have been hampered by the scarcity of immunocompetent animal models. Here, we demonstrate that humanized mice dually engrafted with components of a human immune system and a human liver supported HBV infection, which was partially controlled by human immune cells, as evidenced by lower levels of serum viremia and HBV replication intermediates in the liver. HBV infection resulted in priming and expansion of human HLA-restricted CD8+ T cells, which acquired an activated phenotype. Notably, our dually humanized mice support persistent coinfections with HBV and HIV which opens opportunities for analyzing immune dysregulation during HBV and HIV coinfection and preclinical testing of novel immunotherapeutics.
Notterman, Daniel A; Schneper, Lisa M; Drake, Amanda; Piyasena, Chinthika
This entry contains the data used in the PLOS ONE publication entitled, "Characteristics of salivary telomere length shortening in preterm infants" by Schneper et al. The objective of the study was to examine the association between gestational age, telomere length (TL) and rate of shortening in newborns. Genomic DNA was isolated from buccal samples of 39 term infants at birth and one year and 32 preterm infants at birth, term-adjusted age (40 weeks post-conception) and age one-year corrected for gestational duration. Telomere length was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Demographic and clinical data were collected during clinic or research visits and from hospital records. Socioeconomic status was estimated using the deprivation category (DEPCAT) scores derived from the Carstairs score of the subject's postal code.