Khanna, Jaya; Medvigy, David; Fueglistaler, Stephan; Walko, Robert
More than 20% Amazon rainforest has been cleared in the past three decades triggering important hydroclimatic changes. Small-scale (~few kilometers) deforestation in the 1980s has caused thermally-triggered atmospheric circulations that increase regional cloudiness and precipitation frequency. However, these circulations are predicted to diminish as deforestation increases. Here we use multi-decadal satellite records and numerical model simulations to show a regime shift in the regional hydroclimate accompanying increasing deforestation in Rondônia, Brazil. Compared to the 1980s, present-day deforested areas in downwind western Rondônia are found to be wetter than upwind eastern deforested areas during the local dry season. The resultant precipitation change in the two regions is approximately ±25% of the deforested area mean. Meso-resolution simulations robustly reproduce this transition when forced with increasing deforestation alone, showing a negligible role of large-scale climate variability. Furthermore, deforestation-induced surface roughness reduction is found to play an essential role in the present-day dry season hydroclimate. Our study illustrates the strong scale-sensitivity of the climatic response to Amazonian deforestation and suggests that deforestation is sufficiently advanced to have caused a shift from a thermally- to a dynamically-driven hydroclimatic regime.
Geyman, Emily C.; Wu, Ziman; Nadeau, Matthew D.; Edmonsond, Stacey; Turner, Andrew; Purkis, Sam J.; Howes, Bolton; Dyer, Blake; Ahm, Anne-Sofie C.; Yao, Nan; Deutsch, Curtis A.; Higgins, John A.; Stolper, Daniel A.; Maloof, Adam C.
Carbonate mud represents one of the most important geochemical archives for reconstructing ancient climatic, environmental, and evolutionary change from the rock record. Mud also represents a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Yet, there remains no consensus about how and where carbonate mud is formed. In this contribution, we present new geochemical data that bear on this problem, including stable isotope and minor and trace element data from carbonate sources in the modern Bahamas such as ooids, corals, foraminifera, and green algae.
This setup mimics ice lying above the drainage system. In the experiment, a fluid-filled blister is generated via liquid injection into the interface between a transparent elastic layer and a porous substrate. After injection of liquid, the fluid permeates from the blister through the porous substrate, the blister volume V(t) relaxes exponentially with time. Our lab experiments show that varying the permeability of the porous substrate k significantly impacts the relaxation timescale in the experiments.
Kim, Donghoon; Tracy, Sally J.; Smith, Raymond F.; Gleason, Arianna E.; Bolme, Cindy A.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Appel, Karen; Speziable, Sergio; Wicks, June K.; Berryman, Eleanor J.; Han, Sirus K.; Schoelmerich, Markus O.; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Cunningham, Eric F.; Akin, Minta C.; Asimow, Paul D.; Eggert, Jon H.; Duffy, Thomas S.
The behavior of forsterite, Mg2SiO4, under dynamic compression is of fundamental importance for understanding its phase transformations and high-pressure behavior. Here, we have carried out an in situ X-ray diffraction study of laser-shocked poly- and single-crystal forsterite (a-, b-, and c- orientations) from 19 to 122 GPa using the Matter in Extreme Conditions end-station of the Linac Coherent Light Source. Under laser-based shock loading, forsterite does not transform to the high-pressure equilibrium assemblage of MgSiO3 bridgmanite and MgO periclase, as was suggested previously. Instead, we observe forsterite and forsterite III, a metastable polymorph of Mg2SiO4, coexisting in a mixed-phase region from 33 to 75 GPa for both polycrystalline and single-crystal samples. Densities inferred from X-ray diffraction data are consistent with earlier gas-gun shock data. At higher stress, the behavior observed is sample-dependent. Polycrystalline samples undergo amorphization above 79 GPa. For - and -oriented crystals, a mixture of crystalline and amorphous material is observed to 108 GPa, whereas the -oriented crystal adopts an unknown crystal structure at 122 GPa. The Q values of the first two sharp diffraction peaks of amorphous Mg2SiO4 show a similar trend with compression as those observed for MgSiO3 glass in both recent static and laser-compression experiments. Upon release to ambient pressure, all samples retain or revert to forsterite with evidence for amorphous material also present in some cases. This study demonstrates the utility of femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray sources for probing the time evolution of high-pressure silicates through the nanosecond-scale events of shock compression and release.
Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Landsea, Christopher; Zhang, Wei; Villarini, Gabriele; Knutson, Thomas
These are the data and scripts supporting the manuscript: Vecchi, Landsea, Zhang, Villarini and Knutson (2021): Changes in Atlantic Major Hurricane Frequency Since the Late-19th Century. Nature Communications.
The item included here is a collection of wave profiles collected and presented in the accompanying paper: Rucks, M. J., Winey, J. M., Toyoda, T., Gupta, Y. M., & Duffy, T. S. (in review). "Shock compression of fluorapatite to 120 GPa" Submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets.
This dataset includes individual CIF files with the refined structure of fluorapatite under compression to 61 GPa. The structures have been discussed in detail in the accompanying manuscript "Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of fluorapatite to 61 GPa"
Berryman, Eleanor J.; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Yogendra M.; Duffy, Thomas S.
Stishovite (rutile-type SiO2) is the archetype of dense silicates and may occur in post-garnet eclogitic rocks at lower-mantle conditions. Sound velocities in stishovite are fundamental to understanding its mechanical and thermodynamic behavior at high pressure and temperature. Here, we use plate-impact experiments combined with velocity interferometry to determine the stress, density, and longitudinal sound speed in stishovite formed during shock compression of fused silica at 44 GPa and above. The measured sound speeds range from 12.3(8) km/s at 43.8(8) GPa to 9.8(4) km/s at 72.7(11) GPa. The decrease observed at 64 GPa reacts a decrease in the shear modulus of stishovite, likely due to the onset of melting. By 72 GPa, the measured sound speed agrees with the theoretical bulk sound speed indicating loss of all shear stiffness due to complete melting. Our sound velocity results provide direct evidence for shock-induced melting, in agreement with previous pyrometry data.
This dataset contains all the model output used to generate the figures and data reported in the article "Climate, soil organic layer, and nitrogen jointly drive forest development after fire in the North American boreal zone". The data was generated during spring 2015 using the a modified version of the Ecosystem Demography model version 2, provided as a supplement accompanying the article. The data was generated using the computational resources supported by the PICSciE OIT High Performance Computing Center and Visualization Laboratory at Princeton University. The dataset contains a pdf Readme file which explains in detail how the data can be used. Users are recommended to go through this file before using the data.
Hogikyan, Allison; Resplandy, Laure; Yang, Wenchang; Fueglistaler, Stephan
Dataset constructed from GFDL-FLOR preindustrial control experiment run by Wenchang Yang (email@example.com) on Princeton University's tiger CPU. Processing by Allison Hogikyan (firstname.lastname@example.org) on Princeton University's tigress data processing node. June 2021.