Bourrianne, Philippe; Chidzik, Stanley; Cohen, Daniel; Elmer, Peter; Hallowell, Thomas; Kilbaugh, Todd J.; Lange, David; Leifer, Andrew M.; Marlow, Daniel R.; Meyers, Peter D.; Normand, Edna; Nunes, Janine; Oh, Myungchul; Page, Lyman; Periera, Talmo; Pivarski, Jim; Schreiner, Henry; Stone, Howard A.; Tank, David W.; Thiberge, Stephan; Tully, Christopher
The detailed information on the design and construction of the Princeton Open Ventilation Monitor device and software are contained in this data repository. This information consists of the electrical design files, mechanical design files, bill of materials, human subject recording and analysis code, and a copy of the code repository for operating the patient monitors and central station.
Cara L. Buck; Jonathan D. Cohen; Field, Brent; Daniel Kahneman; Samuel M. McClure; Leigh E. Nystrom
Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects’ attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly) the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value.
This item contains two files. A multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network is built using the MATLAB Deep Network Designer (.m file). It imports a quantum cascade laser (QCL) dataset and splits it into 70% training, 15% validation, and 15% testing subsets. The network consists of an input layer, three hidden layers (each having a normalization and activation layer), and a regression output layer. All of the layers are fully connected, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) is used to evaluate the accuracy of the network. An algorithm is trained on the [-2, +3] QCL dataset using 50 neurons, ReLU activation function, solver Adam, 0.001 learning rate, over 150 epochs, and is saved to be used in the prediction of figure of merit values for QCL designs (.mat file).
A code to identify the laser transition for a quantum cascade laser design based on the figure of merit. Variables such as the number of layers, and layer thicknesses, as well the applied electric field, materials composition, number of period repetitions, and layer tolerance ranges to generate random designs are specified. A folder containing a .csv file with all electronic state-pair transitions collected, a .png file of the bandstructure and the laser transition chosen (in red), for all electric field iterations, and a summary .csv file of all these laser transitions for a structure at each electric field is generated by the code. To use, first install ErwinJr2 on your computer. Then locate the "ErwinJr2" folder and copy these 6 files into that directory, overwriting the previous five files (Material.py, QCLayers.py, QCPlotter.py, QuantumTab.py, rFittings.py). Lastly, run the "acej-qcl-layer_10-lwrandom-v23.py" script using Python.
The "summary-fomstar-3lu-eVmiddle-19.csv" file is generated after running the laser transition code, with all of the data collected for one structure at many electric fields. Running the script various times will generate random structures with the same electric field range. Joining these "summary" .csv files makes a QCL dataset.
Petsev, Nikolai D.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.
Source code for our energy-conserving reformulation of the 4-site molecular model for chiral phenomena originally introduced by Latinwo et al. [F. Latinwo, F. H. Stillinger, and P. G. Debenedetti, Molecular Model for Chirality Phenomena, J. Chem. Phys. 145, 154503 (2016)]. The reformulation includes an additional 8-body force that arises from an explicit configuration-dependent term in the potential energy function, resulting in a coarse-grained energy-conserving force field for molecular dynamics simulations of chirality phenomena. In this model, the coarse-grained interaction energy between two tetramers depends on their respective chiralities, and is controlled by a parameter λ, where favors local configurations involving tetramers of opposite chirality, and gives energetic preference to configurations involving tetramers of the same chirality. The source code is for use with the LAMMPS simulation package.
Amazonian deforestation causes systematic changes in regional dry season precipitation. Some of these changes at contemporary large scales (a few hundreds of kilometers) of deforestation have been associated with a ‘dynamical mesoscale circulation’, induced by the replacement of rough forest with smooth pasture. In terms of decadal averages, this dynamical mechanism yields increased precipitation in downwind regions and decreased precipitation in upwind regions of deforested areas. Daily, seasonal, and interannual variations in this phenomenon may exist, but have not yet been identified or explained. This study uses observations and numerical simulations to develop relationships between the dynamical mechanism and the local- and continental-scale atmospheric conditions across a range of time scales. It is found that the strength of the dynamical mechanism is primarily controlled by the regional-scale thermal and dynamical conditions of the boundary layer, and not by the continental- and global-scale atmospheric state. Lifting condensation level and wind speed within the boundary layer have large and positive correlations with the strength of the dynamical mechanism. The strength of these relationships depends on time scale and is strongest over the seasonal cycle. Overall, the dynamical mechanism is found to be strongest during times when the atmosphere is relatively stable. Hence, for contemporary large scales of deforestation this phenomenon is found to be the prevalent convective triggering mechanism during the dry and parts of transition seasons (especially during the dry-to-wet transition), significantly affecting the hydroclimate during this period.
Khanna, Jaya; Medvigy, David; Fueglistaler, Stephan; Walko, Robert
More than 20% Amazon rainforest has been cleared in the past three decades triggering important hydroclimatic changes. Small-scale (~few kilometers) deforestation in the 1980s has caused thermally-triggered atmospheric circulations that increase regional cloudiness and precipitation frequency. However, these circulations are predicted to diminish as deforestation increases. Here we use multi-decadal satellite records and numerical model simulations to show a regime shift in the regional hydroclimate accompanying increasing deforestation in Rondônia, Brazil. Compared to the 1980s, present-day deforested areas in downwind western Rondônia are found to be wetter than upwind eastern deforested areas during the local dry season. The resultant precipitation change in the two regions is approximately ±25% of the deforested area mean. Meso-resolution simulations robustly reproduce this transition when forced with increasing deforestation alone, showing a negligible role of large-scale climate variability. Furthermore, deforestation-induced surface roughness reduction is found to play an essential role in the present-day dry season hydroclimate. Our study illustrates the strong scale-sensitivity of the climatic response to Amazonian deforestation and suggests that deforestation is sufficiently advanced to have caused a shift from a thermally- to a dynamically-driven hydroclimatic regime.
Microscopy images are part of a paper entitled "Structured foraging of soil predators unveils functional responses to bacterial defenses" by Fernando Rossine, Gabriel Vercelli, Corina Tarnita, and Thomas Gregor. For detailed acquisition methods see the paper. Experiments were performed between 2019 and 2020 at Princeton University. Two types of images are provided, macroscopic and microscopic widefiled Images. Macroscopic images all show Petri dishes covered in fluorescent bacteria being consumed by amoebae. Images are shown for D. discoideum, P. violaceum, and A. castellanii. Images depicting drug treatments (Nystatin and Fluorouracil) were obtained using D. discoideum. Images used for the creation of a profile were all taken within 30 minutes of each other. Within each directory numbered images are independent replicates. The raw video directory contains time series for dishes under drug treatments. Each numbered folder is a sequence of photos (taken 30 minutes apart of each other) of a single dish. Microscopic images all show amoebae consuming bacteria on a petri dish. The 45 minute videos show either edge cells (located at the edge of amoebae colonies), or inner cells (located 2.5 millimeters towards the center of the colony, from the edge). Videos are confocal stacks, with bacteria showing in green and amoebae appearing as black holes within the bacterial lawn. As was for the macroscopic images, images are shown for D. discoideum, P. violaceum, and A. castellanii. Images depicting drug treatments (Nystatin and Fluorouracil) were obtained using D. discoideum.