A real-time velocity (RTV) diagnostic based on active charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy is now operational on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) spherical torus (Menard et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 083015). The system has been designed to supply plasma velocity data in real time to the NSTX-U plasma control system, as required for the implementation of toroidal rotation control. Measurements are available from four radii at a maximum sampling frequency of 5 kHz. Post-discharge analysis of RTV data provides additional information on ion temperature, toroidal velocity and density of carbon impurities. Examples of physics studies enabled by RTV measurements from initial operations of NSTX-U are discussed.
Transport analysis, ion-scale turbulence measurements, and initial linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are reported for a transport validation study based on low aspect ratio NSTX-U L-mode discharges. The relatively long, stationary L-modes enabled by the upgraded centerstack provide a more ideal target for transport validation studies that were not available during NSTX operation. Transport analysis shows that anomalous electron transport dominates energy loss while ion thermal transport is well described by neoclassical theory. Linear gyrokinetic GYRO analysis predicts that ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes are unstable around normalized radii $\rho$=0.6-0.8, although $E\timesB$ shearing rates are larger than the linear growth rates over much of that region. Deeper in the core ($\rho$=0.4-0.6), electromagnetic microtearing modes (MTM) are unstable as a consequence of the relatively high beta and collisionality in these particular discharges. Consistent with the linear analysis, local, nonlinear ion-scale GYRO simulations predict strong ITG transport at $\rho$=0.76, whereas electromagnetic MTM transport is important at $\rho$=0.47. The prediction of ion-scale turbulence is consistent with 2D beam emission spectroscopy (BES) that measures the presence of broadband ion-scale fluctuations. Interestingly, the BES measurements also indicate the presence of bi-modal poloidal phase velocity propagation that could be indicative of two different turbulence types. However, in the region between ($\rho$=0.56, 0.66), ion-scale simulations are strongly suppressed by the locally large $E\timesB$ shear. Instead, electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence simulations predict substantial transport, illustrating electron-scale contributions can be important in low aspect ratio L-modes, similar to recent analysis at conventional aspect ratio. However, agreement within experimental uncertainties has not been demonstrated, which requires additional simulations to test parametric sensitivities. The potential need to include profile-variation effects (due to the relatively large value of $\rho_*$=$\rho_i$/a at low aspect ratio), including electromagnetic and possibly multi-scale effects, is also discussed.
The ability of an injected lithium granule to promptly trigger an edge localized mode (ELM) has been established in multiple experiments. By horizontally injecting granules ranging in diameter from 200 microns to 1mm in diameter into the low field side of EAST H-mode discharges we have determined that granules with diameter > 600 microns are successful in triggering ELMs more than 95% of the time. It was also demonstrated that below 600 microns the triggering efficiency decreased roughly with granule size. Granules were radially injected from the outer midplane with velocities ~ 80 m/s into EAST upper single null discharges with an ITER like tungsten monoblock divertor. These granules were individually tracked throughout their injection cycle in order to determine their efficacy at triggering an ELM. For those granules of sufficient size, ELM triggering was a prompt response to granule injection. By simulating the granule injection with an experimentally benchmarked neutral gas shielding (NGS) model, the ablatant mass deposition required to promptly trigger an ELM is calculated and the fractional mass deposition is determined.
Force-driven parallel shear flow in a spatially periodic domain is shown to be linearly unstable
with respect to both the Reynolds number and the domain aspect ratio. This finding is confirmed
by computer simulations, and a simple expression is derived to determine stable flow conditions.
Periodic extensions of Couette and Poiseuille flows are unstable at Reynolds numbers two orders
of magnitude smaller than their aperiodic equivalents because the periodic boundaries impose
fundamentally different constraints. This instability has important implications for designing computational models of nonlinear dynamic processes with periodicity.
Monitoring the attention of others is fundamental to social cognition. Most of the literature on the topic assumes that our social cognitive machinery is tuned specifically to the gaze direction of others as a proxy for attention. This standard assumption reduces attention to an externally visible parameter. Here we show that this assumption is wrong and a deeper, more meaningful representation is involved. We presented subjects with two cues about the attentional state of a face: direction of gaze and emotional expression. We tested whether people relied predominantly on one cue, the other, or both. If the traditional view is correct, then the gaze cue should dominate. Instead, people employed a variety of strategies, some relying on gaze, some on expression, and some on an integration of cues. We also assessed people’s social cognitive ability using two, independent, standard tests. If the traditional view is correct, then social cognitive ability, as assessed by the independent tests, should correlate with the degree to which people successfully use the gaze cue to judge the attention state of the face. Instead, social cognitive ability correlated best with the degree to which people successfully integrated the cues together, instead of with the use of any one specific cue. The results suggest a rethink of a fundamental component of social cognition: monitoring the attention of others involves constructing a deep model that is informed by a combination of cues. Attention is a rich process and monitoring the attention of others involves a similarly rich representation.
Toroidal rotation is critical for fusion in tokamaks, since it stabilizes instabilities that can otherwise cause disruptions or degrade confinement. Unlike present-day devices, ITER might not have enough neutral-beam torque to easily avoid these instabilities. We must therefore understand how the plasma rotates intrinsically, that is, without applied torque. Experimentally, torque-free plasmas indeed rotate, with profiles that are often non-flat and even non-monotonic. The rotation depends on many plasma parameters including collisionality and plasma current, and exhibits sudden bifurcations (rotation reversals) at critical parameter values.Since toroidal angular momentum is conserved in axisymmetric systems, and since experimentally inferred momentum transport is much too large to be neoclassical, theoretical work has focused on rotation drive by nondiffusive turbulent momentum fluxes. In the edge, intrinsic rotation relaxes to a steady state in which the total momentum outflux from the plasma vanishes. Ion drift orbits, scrape-off-layer flows, separatrix geometry, and turbulence intensity gradient all play a role. In the core, nondiffusive and viscous momentum fluxes balance to set the rotation gradient at each flux surface. Although many mechanisms have been proposed for the nondiffusive fluxes, most are treated in one of two distinct but related gyrokinetic formulations. In a radially local fluxtube, appropriate for rho star <<1, the lowest-order gyrokinetic formulations exhibit a symmetry that prohibits nondiffusive momentum flux for nonrotating plasmas in an up- down symmetric magnetic geometry with no ExB shear. Many symmetry-breaking mechanisms have been identified, but none have yet been conclusively demonstrated to drive a strong enough flux to explain commonly observed experimental rotation profiles. Radially global gyrokinetic simulations naturally include many symmetry-breaking mechanisms, and have shown cases with experimentally relevant levels of nondiffusive flux. These promising early results motivate further work to analyze, verify, and validate.This article provides a pedagogical introduction to intrinsic rotation in axisymmetric devices. Intended for both newcomers to the topic and experienced practitioners, the article reviews a broad range of topics including experimental and theoretical results for both edge and core rotation, while maintaining a focus on the underlying concepts.
A matrix inversion technique is derived to calculate local ion temperature from line-integrated measurements of an extended emission source in an axisymmetric plasma which exactly corrects for both toroidal velocity and radial velocity components. Local emissivity and toroidal velocity can be directly recovered from line-integrated spectroscopic measurements, but an independent measurement of the radial velocity is necessary to complete the temperature inversion. The extension of this technique to handle the radial velocity is relevant for magnetic reconnection and merging compression devices where temperature inversion from spectroscopic measurements is desired. A simulation demonstrates the effects of radial velocity on the determination of ion temperature.
Stotler, D.P.; Battaglia, D.J.; Hager, R.; Kim, K.; Koskela, T.; Park, G.; Reinke, M.L.
Modifications of the drift-kinetic transport code XGC0 to include the
transport, ionization, and recombination of individual charge states,
as well as the associated radiation, are described. The code is first
applied to a simulation of an NSTX H-mode discharge with carbon
impurity to demonstrate the approach to coronal equilibrium. The
effects of neoclassical phenomena on the radiated power profile are
examined sequentially through the activation of individual physics
modules in the code. Orbit squeezing and the neoclassical inward
pinch result in increased radiation for temperatures above a few
hundred eV and changes to the ratios of charge state emissions at a
given electron temperature. Analogous simulations with a neon
impurity yield qualitatively similar results.
Myers, Clayton; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Yoo, Jongsoo; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Fox, William
The loss-of-equilibrium is a solar eruption mechanism whereby a sudden breakdown of the magnetohydrodynamic force balance in the Sun's corona ejects a massive burst of particles and energy into the heliosphere. Predicting a loss-of-equilibrium, which has more recently been formulated as the torus instability, relies on a detailed understanding of the various forces that hold the pre-eruption magnetic flux rope in equilibrium. Traditionally, idealized analytical force expressions are used to derive simplified eruption criteria that can be compared to solar observations and modeling. What is missing, however, is a validation that these idealized analytical force expressions can be applied to the line-tied, low-aspect-ratio conditions of the corona. In this paper, we address this shortcoming by using a laboratory experiment to study the forces that act on long-lived, arched, line-tied magnetic flux ropes. Three key force terms are evaluated over a wide range of experimental conditions: (1) the upward hoop force; (2) the downward strapping force; and (3) the downward toroidal field tension force. First, the laboratory force measurements show that, on average, the three aforementioned force terms cancel to produce a balanced line-tied equilibrium. This finding validates the laboratory force measurement techniques developed here, which were recently used to identify a dynamic toroidal field tension force that can prevent flux rope eruptions [Myers et al., Nature 528, 526 (2015)]. The verification of magnetic force balance also confirms the low-beta assumption that the plasma thermal pressure is negligible in these experiments. Next, the measured force terms are directly compared to their corresponding analytical expressions. While the measured and analytical forces are found to be well correlated, the low-aspect-ratio, line-tied conditions in the experiment are found to both reduce the measured hoop force and increase the measured tension force with respect to analytical expectations. These two co-directed effects combine to generate laboratory flux rope equilibria at lower altitudes than are predicted analytically. Such considerations are expected to modify the loss-of-equilibrium eruption criteria for analogous flux ropes in the solar corona.
Large-eddy simulations were employed over half-ice and half-water surfaces, with varying surface temperatures, wind speeds, directions, as to test if the atmospheric interaction with the heterogeneous surface can be predicted via a heterogeneity Richardson number. This dataset was used to determine that surface heat fluxes over ice, water, and the aggregate surface seem to be captured reasonably well by the wind direction and the heterogeneity Richardson number, but the mean wind and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) profiles were not, suggesting that not only the difference in stability between the two surface, but also the individual stabilities over each surface influence the dynamics.
Large-eddy simulations were employed over five different sea ice patterns, with a constant ice fraction, to test if the overlying atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics and thermodynamics differs. The results of these simulations were used to determine that there were differences in vertical heat flux, momentum flux, and horizontal wind speed, and that more surface information is needed to predict the ABL over the sea ice surface. To see what other surface information is needed, twenty-two landscape metrics were calculated over forty-four different maps at differing resolutions, using the FRAGSTATs program. The results of that analysis are available in a .csv file in this dataset.
A large-volume flux closure during transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in NSTX-U
is demonstrated through resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. Several
major improvements, including the improved positioning of the divertor poloidal field coils, are projected to improve the CHI start-up phase in NSTX-U. Simulations in the NSTX-U configuration with constant in time coil currents show that with strong flux shaping the injected open field lines (injector flux) rapidly reconnect and form large volume of closed flux surfaces. This is achieved by driving parallel current in the injector flux coil and oppositely directed currents in the flux shaping coils to form a narrow injector flux footprint and push the injector flux into the vessel. As the helicity and plasma are injected into the device, the oppositely directed field lines in the injector region are forced to reconnect through a local Sweet–Parker type reconnection, or to spontaneously reconnect when the elongated current sheet becomes MHD unstable to form plasmoids. In these simulations for the first time, it is found that the closed flux is over 70% of the initial injector flux used to initiate the discharge. These results could work well for the application of transient CHI in devices that employ super conducting coils to generate and sustain the plasma equilibrium.
The data are 4554 light curves derived from images taken of the globular cluster M4 by the Kepler space telescope during the K2 portion of its mission, specifically during Campaign 2 of that mission, which occurred in 2014. A total of 3856 images were taken over approximately three months at a cadence of approximately half an hour. The purpose of these observations was to find stars and other objects that vary in brightness over time --- variable stars. Also included is a table with associated information for each of the 4554 objects and their light curves.
Non-axisymmetric control coils and the so-called snowflake divertor configuration are two potential solutions proposed to solve two separate outstanding issues on the path towards self-sustained burning plasma operations, namely the transient energy bursts caused by edge localized modes and the steady state heat exhaust problem. In a reactor, these two proposed solutions would have to operate simultaneously and it is, therefore, important to investigate their compatibility and to identify possible conflicts that could prevent them from operating simultaneously. In this work, single- and two-fluid resistive magnetohydrodynamic calculations are used to investigate the effect of externally applied magnetic perturbations on the snowflake divertor configuration. The calculations are based on simulated NSTX-U plasmas and the results show that additional and longer magnetic lobes are created in the null-point region of the snowflake configuration, compared to those in the conventional single-null. The intersection of these longer and additional lobes with the divertor plates are expected to cause more striations in the particle and heat flux target profiles. In addition, the results indicate that the size of the magnetic lobes, in both single-null and snowflake configurations, are more sensitive to resonant magnetic perturbations than to non-resonant magnetic perturbations. The results also suggest that lower values of current in non-axisymmetric control coils would be required to suppress edge localized modes in plasmas with the snowflake configuration.