This work continues a series of papers where we propose an algorithm for quasioptical modeling of electromagnetic beams with and without mode conversion. The general theory was reported in the first paper of this series, where a parabolic partial differential equation was derived for the field envelope that may contain one or multiple modes with close group velocities. In the second paper, we presented a corresponding code PARADE (PAraxial RAy DEscription) and its test applications to single-mode beams. Here, we report quasioptical simulations of mode-converting beams for the first time. We also demonstrate that PARADE can model splitting of two-mode beams. The numerical results produced by PARADE show good agreement with those of one-dimensional full-wave simulations and also with conventional ray tracing (to the extent that one-dimensional and ray-tracing simulations are applicable).
A radiative divertor technique is planned for the NSTX-U tokamak to prevent excessive erosion and thermal damage of divertor plasma-facing components in H-mode plasma discharges with auxiliary heating up to 12 MW.
In the radiative (partially detached) divertor, extrinsically seeded deuterium or impurity gases are used to increase
plasma volumetric power and momentum losses.
A real-time feedback control of the gas seeding rate is planned for discharges of up to 5 s duration.
The outer divertor leg plasma electron temperature Te estimated spectroscopically in real time will be used as a control parameter.
A vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer McPherson Model 251 with a fast charged-coupled device detector is developed for temperature monitoring between 5 and 30 eV, based on the delta n=0;1 line intensity ratios of carbon, nitrogen or neon ions lines in the spectral range 300 to 1600 A.
A collisional-radiative model-based line intensity ratio will be used for relative calibration.
A real-time Te-dependent signal within a characteristic divertor detachment equilibration time of ~ 10-15 ms is expected.
A new model of heating, current drive, torque and other effects of neutral beam injection on NSTX-U that uses neural networks has been developed. The model has been trained and tested on the results of the Monte Carlo code NUBEAM for the database of experimental discharges taken during the first operational campaign of NSTX-U. By projecting flux surface quantities onto empirically derived basis functions, the model is able to efficiently and accurately reproduce the behavior of both scalars, like the total neutron rate and shine through, and profiles, like beam current drive and heating. The model has been tested on the NSTX-U real-time computer, demonstrating a rapid execution time orders of magnitude faster than the Monte Carlo code that is well suited for the iterative calculations needed to interpret experimental results, optimization during scenario development activities, and real-time plasma control applications. Simulation results of a proposed design for a nonlinear observer that embeds the neural network calculations to estimate the poloidal flux profile evolution, as well as effective charge and fast ion diffusivity, are presented.
A reduced semi-empirical model using time-dependent axisymmetric vacuum field calculations is used to develop the prefill and feed-forward coil current targets required for reliable direct induction (DI) startup on the new MA-class spherical tokamaks, MAST-U and NSTX-U. The calculations are constrained by operational limits unique to each device, such as the geometry of the conductive elements and active coils, power supply specifications and coil heating and stress limits. The calculations are also constrained by semi-empirical models for sufficient breakdown, current drive, equilibrium and stability of the plasma developed from a shared database. A large database of DI startup on NSTX and NSTX-U is leveraged to quantify the requirements for achieving a reliable breakdown (Ip ~ 20 kA). It is observed that without pre-ionization, STs access the large E/P regime at modest loop voltage (Vloop) where the electrons in the weakly ionized plasma are continually accelerating along the open field lines. This ensures a rapid (order millisecond) breakdown of the neutral gas, even without pre-ionization or high-quality field nulls. The timescale of the initial increase in Ip on NSTX is reproduced in the reduced model provided a mechanism for impeding the applied electric field is included. Most discharges that fail in the startup phase are due to an inconsistency in the evolution of the plasma current (Ip) and equilibrium field or loss of vertical stability during the burn-through phase. The requirements for the self-consistent evolution of the fields in the weakly and full-ionized plasma states are derived from demonstrated DI startup on NSTX, NSTX-U and MAST. The predictive calculations completed for MAST-U and NSTX-U illustrate that the maximum Ip ramp rate (dIp/dt) in the early startup phase is limited by the voltage limits on the poloidal field coils on MAST-U and passive vertical stability on NSTX-U.
The dynamic interplay between the core and the edge plasma has important consequences in the confinement and heating of fusion plasma. The transport of the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL) plasma imposes boundary conditions on the core plasma, and neutral transport through the SOL influences the core plasma sourcing. In order to better study these effects in a self-consistent, time-dependent fashion with reasonable turn-around time, a reduced model is needed. In this paper we introduce the SOL Box Model, a reduced SOL model that calculates the plasma temperature and density in the SOL given the core-to-edge particle and power fluxes and recycling coefficients. The analytic nature of the Box Model allows one to readily incorporate SOL physics in time-dependent transport solvers for pulse design applications in the control room. Here we demonstrate such a coupling with the core transport solver TRANSP and compare the results with density and temperature measurements, obtained through Thomson scattering and Langmuir probes, of an NSTX discharge. Implications for future interpretive and predictive simulations are discussed.
Recently published scenarios for fully non-inductive startup and operation on the National Spherical
Torus eXperiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) (Menard et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 083015) show Electron
Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) as an important component in preparing a target plasma for
efficient High Harmonic Fast Wave and Neutral Beam heating. The modeling of the propagation and
absorption of EC waves in the evolving plasma is required to define the most effective window of
operation, and to optimize the launcher geometry for maximal heating and current drive during this
window. Here, we extend a previous optimization of O1-mode ECRH on NSTX-U to account for the
full time-dependent performance of the ECRH using simulations performed with TRANSP. We find
that the evolution of the density profile has a prominent role in the optimization by defining the time
window of operation, which in certain cases may be a more important metric to compare launcher
performance than the average power absorption. This feature cannot be captured by analysis on static
profiles, and should be accounted for when optimizing ECRH on any device that operates near the
cutoff density. Additionally, the utility of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) in driving current and
generating closed flux surfaces in the early startup phase has been demonstrated on a number of
devices. Using standalone GENRAY simulations, we find that efficient EBW current drive is
possible on NSTX-U if the injection angle is shifted below the midplane and aimed towards the top
half of the vacuum vessel. However, collisional damping of the EBW is projected to be significant, in
some cases accounting for up to 97% of the absorbed EBW power
We measure the coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (CRBS) signal integral as a function of the recorded gas pressure in He, Co2, SF6, and air, and we confirm the already established quadratic dependence of the signal on the gas density. We propose the use of CRBS as an effective diagnostic for the remote measurement of gas’ density (pressure) and temperature, as well as polarizability, for gases of known composition.
Heating magnetically confined plasmas using waves in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies typically requires coupling these waves over a steep density gradient. This process has produced an unexpected and deleterious phenomenon on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX): a prompt loss of wave power along magnetic field lines in front of the antenna to the divertor. Understanding this loss may be key to achieving effective heating and expanding the operational space of NSTX-Upgrade. Here, we propose that a new type of mode, which conducts a significant fraction of the total wave power in the low-density peripheral plasma, is driving these losses. We demonstrate the existence of such modes, which are distinct from surface modes and coaxial modes, in a cylindrical cold-plasma model when a half wavelength structure fits into the region outside the core plasma. The latter condition generalizes the previous hypothesis regarding the occurence of the edge losses and may explain why full-wave simulations predict these losses in some cases but not others. If valid, this condition implies that outer gap control is a potential strategy for mitigating the losses in NSTX-Upgrade in addition to raising the magnetic field or influencing the edge density.
White, R; Gorelenkov, N.; Gorelenkova, M.; Podesta, M.; Ethier, S.; Chen, Y.
Growth of Alfven modes driven unstable by a
distribution of high energy particles up to saturation
is investigated with a guiding
center code, using numerical eigenfunctions produced by linear theory and
a numerical high energy particle distribution,
in order to make detailed comparison with experiment and with models for
saturation amplitudes and the modification of beam profiles. Two
innovations are introduced. First, a very noise free means of obtaining
the mode-particle energy and momentum transfer is introduced, and
secondly, a spline representation of the actual beam particle
distribution is used.