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## Search Results

### 42. Stellarator coil design using cubic splines for improved access on the outboard side

- Author(s):
- Nicola, Lonigro; Zhu, Caoxiang
- Abstract:
- This is the data archive for the paper Lonigro & Zhu 2021 Nucl. Fusion https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ac2ff3. You can reproduce all the figures in the paper using the data and plotting scripts archived in this folder.
- Type:
- collection
- Issue Date:
- 20 October 2021

### 43. Synergy of Coupled Kink and Tearing Modes in Fast Ion Transport

- Author(s):
- Yang, J.; Podesta, M.; Fredrickson, E.
- Abstract:
- One aspect of the interaction between fast ions and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities is the fast ion transport. Coupled kink and tearing MHD instabilities have also been reported to cause fast ion transport. Recently, the ''kick" model has been developed to compute the evolution of the fast ion distribution from the neutral beam injection using instabilities as phase space resonance sources. The goal of this paper is to utilize the kick model to understand the physics of fast ion transport caused by the coupled kink and tearing modes. Soft X-ray diagnostics are used to identify the mode parameters in NSTX. The comparison of neutron rates measured and computed from time-dependent TRANSP simulation with the kick model shows the coupling of kink and tearing mode is important in determination of the fast ion transport. The numerical scan of the mode parameters shows that the relative phase of the kink and tearing modes and the overlapping of kink and tearing mode resonances in the phase space can affect the fast ion transport, suggesting that the synergy of the coupled modes may be causing the fast ion transpor
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- February 2021

### 44. The updated ITPA global H-mode confinement database: description and analysis

- Author(s):
- Verdoolaege, G.; Kaye, S.M.; Angioni, C.; Kardaunn, O.W.J.F.; Maslov, M.; Romanelli, M.; Ryter, F.; Thomsen, K.
- Abstract:
- The multi-machine ITPA Global H-mode Confinement Database has been upgraded with new data from JET with the ITER-like wall and ASDEX Upgrade with the full tungsten wall. This paper describes the new database and presents results of regression analysis to estimate the global energy confinement scaling in H-mode plasmas using a standard power law. Various subsets of the database are considered, focusing on type of wall and divertor materials, confinement regime (all H-modes, ELMy H or ELM-free) and ITER-like constraints. Apart from ordinary least squares, two other, robust regression techniques are applied, which take into account uncertainty on all variables. Regression on data from individual devices shows that, generally, the confinement dependence on density and the power degradation are weakest in the fully metallic devices. Using the multi-machine scalings, predictions are made of the confinement time in a standard ELMy H-mode scenario in ITER. The uncertainty on the scaling parameters is discussed with a view to practically useful error bars on the parameters and predictions. One of the derived scalings for ELMy H-modes on an ITER-like subset is studied in particular and compared to the IPB98(y,2) confinement scaling in engineering and dimensionless form. Transformation of this new scaling from engineering variables to dimensionless quantities is shown to result in large error bars on the dimensionless scaling. Regression analysis in the space of dimensionless variables is therefore proposed as an alternative, yielding acceptable estimates for the dimensionless scaling. The new scaling, which is dimensionally correct within the uncertainties, suggests that some dependencies of confinement in the multi- machine database can be reconciled with parameter scans in individual devices. This includes vanishingly small dependence of confinement on line-averaged density and normalized plasma pressure (β), as well as a noticeable, positive dependence on effective atomic mass and plasma triangularity. Extrapolation of this scaling to ITER yields a somewhat lower confinement time compared to the IPB98(y, 2) prediction, possibly related to the considerably weaker dependence on major radius in the new scaling (slightly above linear). Further studies are needed to compare more flexible regression models with the power law used here. In addition, data from more devices concerning possible ‘hidden variables’ could help to determine their influence on confinement, while adding data in sparsely populated areas of the parameter space may contribute to further disentangling some of the global confinement dependencies in tokamak plasmas.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- March 2021

### 45. Wave-kinetic approach to zonal-flow dynamics: recent advances

- Author(s):
- Zhu, Hongxuan; Dodin, I. Y.
- Abstract:
- Basic physics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows has long been studied within the framework of wave-kinetic theory. Recently, this framework has been re-examined from first principles, which has led to more accurate yet still tractable "improved" wave-kinetic equations. In particular, these equations reveal an important effect of the zonal-flow "curvature" (the second radial derivative of the flow velocity) on dynamics and stability of drift waves and zonal flows. We overview these recent findings and present a consolidated high-level picture of (mostly quasilinear) zonal-flow physics within reduced models of drift-wave turbulence.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- March 2021

### 46. Analytic stability boundaries for compressional and global Alfven eigenmodes driven by fast ions. I. Interaction via ordinary and anomalous cyclotron resonances.

- Author(s):
- Lestz J.B., Gorelenkov N.N., Belova E.V., Tang S.X., Crocker N.A.
- Abstract:
- Conditions for net fast ion drive are derived for beam-driven, sub-cyclotron compressional (CAE) and global (GAE) Alfven eigenmodes, such as those routinely observed in spherical tokamaks such as NSTX(-U) and MAST. Both co- and counter-propagating CAEs and GAEs are investigated, driven by the ordinary and anomalous Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with fast ions. Whereas prior results were restricted to vanishingly narrow distributions in velocity space, broad parameter regimes are identified in this work which enable an analytic treatment for realistic fast ion distributions generated by neutral beam injection. The simple, approximate conditions derived in these regimes for beam distributions of realistic width compare well to the numerical evaluation of the full analytic expressions for fast ion drive. Moreover, previous results in the very narrow beam case are corrected and generalized to retain all terms in omega/omega_{ci} and k_{||}/kperp, which are often assumed to be small parameters but can significantly modify the conditions of drive and damping when they are non-negligible. Favorable agreement is demonstrated between the approximate stability criterion, simulation results, and a large database of NSTX observations of cntr-GAEs.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- September 2019

### 47. Deep convolutional neural networks for multi-scale time-series classification and application to disruption prediction in fusion devices

- Author(s):
- Churchill, R.M; the DIII-D team
- Abstract:
- The multi-scale, mutli-physics nature of fusion plasmas makes predicting plasma events challenging. Recent advances in deep convolutional neural network architectures (CNN) utilizing dilated convolutions enable accurate predictions on sequences which have long-range, multi-scale characteristics, such as the time-series generated by diagnostic instruments observing fusion plasmas. Here we apply this neural network architecture to the popular problem of disruption prediction in fusion tokamaks, utilizing raw data from a single diagnostic, the Electron Cyclotron Emission imaging (ECEi) diagnostic from the DIII-D tokamak. ECEi measures a fundamental plasma quantity (electron temperature) with high temporal resolution over the entire plasma discharge, making it sensitive to a number of potential pre-disruptions markers with different temporal and spatial scales. Promising, initial disruption prediction results are obtained training a deep CNN with large receptive field ({$\sim$}30k), achieving an $F_1$-score of {$\sim$}91\% on individual time-slices using only the ECEi data.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- October 2019

### 48. First impurity powder injection experiments in LHD

- Author(s):
- Nespoli F., Ashikawa N., Gilson E.P., Lunsford R., Masuzaki S., Shoji M., Oishi T., Suzuki C., Nagy A., Mollen A., Pablant N.A., Ida K., Yoshinuma M., Tamura N., Gates D.A., Morisaki T., and the LHD experiment group
- Abstract:
- Injection of impurities in the form of sub-millimeter powder grains is performed for the first time in the Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma, employing the Impurity Powder Dropper (IPD) [A. Nagy et al., RSI 2018], developed and built by PPPL. Controlled amounts of boron (B) and boron nitride (BN) powder are injected into the helical plasma. Visible camera imaging, UV and charge exchange spectroscopy measurements show that the injected impurities effectively penetrate into the plasma in two different magnetic configurations.The prompt effects of the impurities on the plasma are characterized as the injection rate is scanned. The injected impurities provide a supplemental electron source, causing the plasma density to increase, together with the radiated power. Beneficial effects on the confined plasma temperature are observed at low plasma densities, due to an increased efficiency in NBI power absorption. For $n_{e,av}<10^{19}m^{-3}$ the powder grains penetrate deeper into the plasma, as they can be less effectively deflected by the plasma flow in the divertor leg, which they have to cross first as they are injected from the top of the machine.In this case, the created B ions are observed to move outwards from UV spectroscopy and charge exchange measurements, due to the outwards direction of the radial electric field. This makes low density plasmas a better candidate for powder boronization techniques.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- November 2020

### 49. Geometric concepts for stellarator permanent magnet arrays

- Author(s):
- Hammond, K. C.; Zhu, C.; Brown, T.; Corrigan, K.; Gates, D. A.; Sibilia, M.
- Abstract:
- The development of stellarators that use permanent magnet arrays to shape their confining magnetic fields has been a topic of recent interest, but the requirements for how such magnets must be shaped, manufactured, and assembled remain to be determined. To address these open questions, we have performed a study of geometric concepts for magnet arrays with the aid of the newly developed MAGPIE code. A proposed experiment similar to the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is used as a test case. Two classes of magnet geometry are explored: curved bricks that conform to a regular grid in cylindrical coordinates, and hexahedra that conform to the toroidal plasma geometry. In addition, we test constraints on the magnet polarization. While magnet configurations constrained to be polarized normally to a toroidal surface around the plasma are unable to meet the required magnetic field parameters when subject to physical limitations on the strength of present-day magnets, configurations with unconstrained polarizations are shown to satisfy the physics requirements for a targeted plasma.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- July 2020

### 50. Gyrokinetic understanding of the edge pedestal transport driven by resonant magnetic perturbations in a realistic divertor geometry

- Author(s):
- Hager, R.; Chang, C. S.; Ferraro, N. M.; Nazikian R.
- Abstract:
- Self-consistent simulations of neoclassical and electrostatic turbulent transport in a DIII-D H-mode edge plasma under resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have been performed using the global total-f gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code XGC, in order to study density-pump out and electron heat confinement.The RMP field is imported from the extended magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code M3D-C1, taking into account the linear two-fluid plasma response.With both neoclassical and turbulence physics considered together, the XGC simulation reproduces two key features of experimentally observed edge transport under RMPs: increased radial particle transport in the pedestal region that is sufficient to account for the experimental pump-out rate, and suppression of the electron heat flux in the steepest part of the edge pedestal.In the simulation, the density fluctuation amplitude of modes moving in the electron diamagnetic direction increases due to interaction with RMPs in the pedestal shoulder and outward, while the electron temperature fluctuation amplitude decreases.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- June 2020

### 51. MHD-blob correlations in NSTX

- Author(s):
- Zweben SJ; Fredrickson ED; Myra JR; Podesta M; Scotti F
- Abstract:
- This paper describes a study of the cross-correlations between edge fluctuations as seen in the gas puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic and low frequency coherent magnetic fluctuations (MHD) in H-mode plasmas in NSTX. The main new result was that large blobs in the SOL were significantly correlated with MHD activity the 3-6 kHz range in 21 of the 223 shots examined. There were also many other shots in which fluctuations in the GPI signal level and its peak radius Rpeak were correlated with MHD activity, but without any significant correlation of the MHD with large blobs. The structure and motion of the MHD is compared with that of the correlated blobs, and some possible theoretical mechanisms for the MHD-blob correlation are discussed.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- May 2020

### 52. Machine Learning Characterization of Alfvénic and Sub-Alfvénic Chirping and Correlation With Fast-Ion Loss at NSTX

- Author(s):
- Woods, B. J. Q.; Duarte, V. N.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Podestà, M.; Vann, R. G. L.
- Abstract:
- Abrupt large events in the Alfvenic and sub-Alfvenic frequency bands in tokamaks are typically correlated with increased fast-ion loss. Here, machine learning is used to speed up the laborious process of characterizing the behavior of magnetic perturbations from corresponding frequency spectrograms that are typically identified by humans. The analysis allows for comparison between different mode character (such as quiescent, fixed frequency, and chirping, avalanching) and plasma parameters obtained from the TRANSP code, such as the ratio of the neutral beam injection (NBI) velocity and the Alfven velocity (v_inj./v_A), the q-profile, and the ratio of the neutral beam beta and the total plasma beta (beta_beam,i / beta). In agreement with the previous work by Fredrickson et al., we find a correlation between beta_beam,i and mode character. In addition, previously unknown correlations are found between moments of the spectrograms and mode character. Character transition from quiescent to nonquiescent behavior for magnetic fluctuations in the 50200-kHz frequency band is observed along the boundary v_phi ~ (1/4)(v_inj. - 3v_A), where v_phi is the rotation velocity.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- December 2019

### 53. Modeling of resistive plasma response in toroidal geometry using an asymptotic matching approach

- Author(s):
- Z. R. Wang; A. H. Glasser; D. Brennan; Y. Q. Liu; J-K. Park
- Abstract:
- The method of solving linear resistive plasma response, based on the asymptotic matching approach, is developed for full toroidal tokamaks by upgrading the Resistive DCON code [A.H. Glasser, Z.R. Wang and J.-K. Park, Physics of Plasmas, \textbf{23}, 112506 (2016)]. The derived matching matrix, asymptotically matching the outer and inner regions, indicates that the applied three dimension (3-D) magnetic perturbations contribute additional small solutions at each resonant surface due to the toroidal coupling of poloidal modes. In contrast, the resonant harmonic only affects the corresponding resonant surface in the cylindrical plasma. Since the solution of ideal outer region is critical to the asymptotic matching and is challenging to be solved in the toroidal geometry due to the singular power series solution at the resonant surfaces, systematic verification of the outer region $\Delta^\prime$ matrix is made by reproducing the well known analytical $\Delta^{\prime}$ result in [H.P. Furth, P.H. Rutherford and H. Selberg, The Physics of Fluids, \textbf{16}, 1054-1063 (1073)] as well as by making a quantitative benchmark with the PEST3 code [A. Pletzer and R.L. Dewar, J. Plasma Physics, \textbf{45}, 427-451 (1991)]. Finally, the reconstructed numerical solution of resistive plasma response from the toroidal matching matrix is presented. Comparing with the ideal plasma response, the global structure of the response can be affected by the small finite island at the resonant surfaces.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- October 2020

### 54. Simulating pitch angle scattering using an explicitly solvable energy-conserving algorithm

- Author(s):
- Zhang, Xin; Fu, Yichen; Qin, Hong
- Abstract:
- Particle distribution functions evolving under the Lorentz operator can be simulated with the Langevin equation for pitch angle scattering. This approach is frequently used in particle based Monte-Carlo simulations of plasma collisions, among others. However, most numerical treatments do not guarantee energy conservation, which may lead to unphysical artifacts such as numerical heating and spectra distortions. We present a novel structure-preserving numerical algorithm for the Langevin equation for pitch angle scattering. Similar to the well-known Boris algorithm, the proposed numerical scheme takes advantage of the structure-preserving properties of the Cayley transform when calculating the velocity-space rotations. The resulting algorithm is explicitly solvable, while preserving the norm of velocities down to machine precision. We demonstrate that the method has the same order of numerical convergence as the traditional stochastic Euler-Maruyama method.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- September 2020

### 55. Solitary zonal structures in subcritical drift waves: a minimum model

- Author(s):
- Yao Zhou; Hongxuan Zhu; I. Y. Dodin
- Abstract:
- {\rtf1\ansi\ansicpg1252\cocoartf1561\cocoasubrtf610{\fonttbl\f0\fswiss\fcharset0 Helvetica;}{\colortbl;\red255\green255\blue255;\red0\green0\blue0;}{\*\expandedcolortbl;;\cssrgb\c0\c0\c0;}\margl1440\margr1440\vieww10800\viewh8400\viewkind0\pard\tx887\tx1775\tx2662\tx3550\tx4438\tx5325\tx6213\tx7101\tx7988\tx8876\tx9764\tx10651\tx11539\tx12427\tx13314\tx14202\tx15090\tx15977\tx16865\tx17753\tx18640\tx19528\tx20416\tx21303\tx22191\tx23079\tx23966\tx24854\tx25742\tx26629\tx27517\tx28405\tx29292\tx30180\tx31067\tx31955\tx32843\tx33730\tx34618\tx35506\tx36393\tx37281\tx38169\tx39056\tx39944\tx40832\tx41719\tx42607\tx43495\tx44382\tx45270\tx46158\tx47045\tx47933\tx48821\tx49708\tx50596\tx51484\tx52371\tx53259\tx54147\tx55034\tx55922\tx56810\tx57697\tx58585\tx59472\tx60360\tx61248\tx62135\tx63023\tx63911\tx64798\tx65686\tx66574\tx67461\tx68349\tx69237\tx70124\tx71012\tx71900\tx72787\tx73675\tx74563\tx75450\tx76338\tx77226\tx78113\tx79001\tx79889\tx80776\tx81664\tx82552\tx83439\tx84327\tx85215\tx86102\tx86990\tx87877\tx88765\slleading20\pardirnatural\partightenfactor0\f0\fs38 \cf2 Solitary zonal structures have recently been identified in gyrokinetic simulations of subcritical drift-wave (DW) turbulence with background shear flows. However, the nature of these structures has not been fully understood yet. Here, we show that similar structures can be obtained within a reduced model, which complements the modified Hasegawa\'97Mima equation with a generic primary instability and a background shear flow. We also find that these structures can be qualitatively reproduced in the modified Hasegawa\'97Wakatani equation, which subsumes the reduced model as a limit. In particular, we illustrate that in both cases, the solitary zonal structures approximately satisfy the same \'93equation of state\'94, which is a local relation connecting the DW envelope with the zonal-flow velocity. Due to this generality, our reduced model can be considered as a minimum model for solitary zonal structures in subcritical DWs. }
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- March 2020

### 56. Statistical properties of magnetic structures and energy dissipation during turbulent reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail

- Author(s):
- Bergstedt, K.; Ji, H.; Jara-Almonte, J.; Yoo, J.; Ergun, R. E.; Chen, L.-J.
- Abstract:
- We present the first statistical study of magnetic structures and associated energy dissipation observed during a single period of turbulent magnetic reconnection, by using the in situ measurements of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission in the Earth's magnetotail on 26 July 2017. The structures are selected by identifying a bipolar signature in the magnetic field and categorized as plasmoids or current sheets via an automated algorithm which examines current density and plasma flow. The size of the plasmoids forms a decaying exponential distribution ranging from subelectron up to ion scales. The presence of substantial number of current sheets is consistent with a physical picture of dynamic production and merging of plasmoids during turbulent reconnection. The magnetic structures are locations of significant energy dissipation via electric field parallel to the local magnetic field, while dissipation via perpendicular electric field dominates outside of the structures. Significant energy also returns from particles to fields.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- 14 September 2020

### 57. Theory of the tertiary instability and the Dimits shift from reduced drift-wave models

- Author(s):
- Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Dodin, I. Y.
- Abstract:
- Tertiary modes in electrostatic drift-wave turbulence are localized near extrema of the zonal velocity $U(x)$ with respect to the radial coordinate $x$. We argue that these modes can be described as quantum harmonic oscillators with complex frequencies, so their spectrum can be readily calculated. The corresponding growth rate $\gamma_{\rm TI}$ is derived within the modified Hasegawa--Wakatani model. We show that $\gamma_{\rm TI}$ equals the primary-instability growth rate plus a term that depends on the local $U''$; hence, the instability threshold is shifted compared to that in homogeneous turbulence. This provides a generic explanation of the well-known yet elusive Dimits shift, which we find explicitly in the Terry--Horton limit. Linearly unstable tertiary modes either saturate due to the evolution of the zonal density or generate radially propagating structures when the shear $|U'|$ is sufficiently weakened by viscosity. The Dimits regime ends when such structures are generated continuously.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- January 2020

### 58. Toward fusion plasma scenario planning for NSTX-U using machine-learning-accelerated models

- Author(s):
- Mark D. Boyer
- Abstract:
- One of the most promising devices for realizing power production through nuclear fusion is the tokamak. To maximize performance, it is preferable that tokamak reactors achieve advanced operating scenarios characterized by good plasma confinement, improved magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability, and a largely non-inductively driven plasma current. Such scenarios could enable steady-state reactor operation with high \emph{fusion gain} --- the ratio of produced fusion power to the external power provided through the plasma boundary. Precise and robust control of the evolution of the plasma boundary shape as well as the spatial distribution of the plasma current, density, temperature, and rotation will be essential to achieving and maintaining such scenarios. The complexity of the evolution of tokamak plasmas, arising due to nonlinearities and coupling between various parameters, motivates the use of model-based control algorithms that can account for the system dynamics. In this work, a learning-based accelerated model trained on data from the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) is employed to develop planning and control strategies for regulating the density and temperature profile evolution around desired trajectories. The proposed model combines empirical scaling laws developed across multiple devices with neural networks trained on empirical data from NSTX-U and a database of first-principles-based computationally intensive simulations. The reduced execution time of the accelerated model will enable practical application of optimization algorithms and reinforcement learning approaches for scenario planning and control development. An initial demonstration of applying optimization approaches to the learning-based model is presented, including a strategy for mitigating the effect of leaving the finite validity range of the accelerated model. The approach shows promise for actuator planning between experiments and in real-time.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- May 2020

### 59. Vertical forces during VDEs in an ITER plasma and the role of halo currents

- Author(s):
- Clasuer, C; Jardin, S; Ferraro, N
- Abstract:
- Vertical displacement events (VDEs) can occur in elongated tokamaks causing large currents to flow in the vessel and other adjacent metallic structures. To better understand the potential magnitude of the associated forces and the role of the so called ``halo currents'' on them, we have used the M3D-C1 code to simulate potential VDEs in ITER. We used actual values for the vessel resistivity and pre-quench temperatures and, unlike most of the previous studies, the halo region is naturally formed by triggering the thermal quench with an increase in the plasma thermal conductivity. We used the 2D non-linear version of the code and vary the post-thermal quench thermal conductivity profile as well as the boundary temperature in order to generate a wide range of possible cases that could occur in the experiment. We also show that, for a similar condition, increasing the halo current does not increase the total force on the wall since it is offset by a decrease in the toroidal contribution.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- February 2020

### 60. A scalable real-time framework for Thomson scattering analysis: Application to NSTX-U

- Author(s):
- F. M. Laggner, A. Diallo, B. P. LeBlanc, R. Rozenblat, G. Tchilinguirian, E.Kolemen, the NSTX-U team
- Abstract:
- A detailed description of a prototype setup for real-time (rt) Thomson scattering (TS) analysis is presented and implemented in the multi-point Thomson scattering (MPTS) diagnostic system at the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade(NSTX-U). The data acquisition hardware was upgraded with rt capable electronics (rt-analog digital converters (ADCs) and a rt server) that allow for fast digitization of the laser pulse signal of eight radial MPTS channels. In addition, a new TS spectrum analysis software for a rapid calculation of electron temperature (Te) and electron density (ne) was developed. Testing of the rt hardware and data analysis soft-ware was successfully completed and benchmarked against the standard, post-shot evaluation. Timing tests were performed showing that the end-to-end processing time was reproducibly below 17 ms for the duration of at least 5 s, meeting a 60 Hz deadline by the laser pulse repetition rate over the length of a NSTX-U discharge. The presented rt framework is designed to be scalable in system size, i.e. incorporation of additional radial channels by solely adding additional rt capable hardware. Furthermore, it is scalable in its operation duration and was continuously run for up to 30 min, making it an attractive solution for machines with long discharge duration such as advanced, non-inductive tokamaks or stellarators.
- Type:
- Dataset
- Issue Date:
- March 2019