Small changes in word choice can lead to dramatically different interpretations of narratives. How does the brain accumulate and integrate such local changes to construct unique neural representations for different stories? In this study we created two distinct narratives by changing only a few words in each sentence (e.g. “he” to “she” or “sobbing” to “laughing”) while preserving the grammatical structure across stories. We then measured changes in neural responses between the two stories. We found that the differences in neural responses between the two stories gradually increased along the hierarchy of processing timescales. For areas with short integration windows, such as early auditory cortex, the differences in neural responses between the two stories were relatively small. In contrast, in areas with the longest integration windows at the top of the hierarchy, such as the precuneus, temporal parietal junction, and medial frontal cortices, there were large differences in neural responses between stories. Furthermore, this gradual increase in neural difference between the stories was highly correlated with an area’s ability to integrate information over time. Amplification of neural differences did not occur when changes in words did not alter the interpretation of the story (e.g. “sobbing” to “crying”). Our results demonstrate how subtle differences in words are gradually accumulated and amplified along the cortical hierarchy as the brain constructs a narrative over time.
This dataset encompasses two distinct sets of data analyzed in the study, namely Asian American Scholar Forum survey data and Microsoft Academic Graph bibleometrics data:
Yu Xie, Xihong Lin, Ju Li, Qian He, Junming Huang, Caught in the Crossfire: Fears of Chinese-American Scientists, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in press (2023).
Physical and biogeochemical variables from the NOAA-GFDL Earth System Model 2M experiments (pre-processed), previously published observation-based datasets, and code to reproduce figures from these datasets, used for the study 'Hydrological cycle amplification reshapes warming-driven oxygen loss in Atlantic Ocean'.
Physical and biogeochemical variables from the NOAA-GFDL Earth System Model 2M experiments, and previously published observation-based datasets, used for the study 'Hydrological cycle amplification reshapes warming-driven oxygen loss in Atlantic Ocean'.
There has been considerable recent interest in the high-pressure behavior of silicon carbide, a potential major constituent of carbon-rich exoplanets. In this work, the atomic-level structure of SiC was determined through in situ X-ray diffraction under laser-driven ramp compression up to 1.5 TPa; stresses more than seven times greater than previous static and shock data. Here we show that the B1-type structure persists over this stress range and we have constrained its equation of state (EOS). Using this data we have determined the first experimentally based mass-radius curves for a hypothetical pure SiC planet. Interior structure models are constructed for planets consisting of a SiC-rich mantle and iron-rich core. Carbide planets are found to be ~10% less dense than corresponding terrestrial planets.
Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is of zoonotic origin. Evolutionary analyses assessing whether coronaviruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 infected ancestral species of modern-day animal hosts could be useful in identifying additional reservoirs of potentially dangerous coronaviruses. We reasoned that if a clade of species has been repeatedly exposed to a virus, then their proteins relevant for viral entry may exhibit adaptations that affect host susceptibility or response. We perform comparative analyses across the mammalian phylogeny of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, in order to uncover evidence for selection acting at its binding interface with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We uncover that in rodents there is evidence for adaptive amino acid substitutions at positions comprising the ACE2-spike interaction interface, whereas the variation within ACE2 proteins in primates and some other mammalian clades is not consistent with evolutionary adaptations. We also analyze aminopeptidase N (APN), the receptor for the human coronavirus 229E, a virus that causes the common cold, and find evidence for adaptation in primates. Altogether, our results suggest that the rodent and primate lineages may have had ancient exposures to viruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E, respectively. Included in this repository are the instructions and corresponding code required to build the dataset and run the analysis in the manuscript.
Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Landsea, Christopher; Zhang, Wei; Villarini, Gabriele; Knutson, Thomas
These are the data and scripts supporting the manuscript: Vecchi, Landsea, Zhang, Villarini and Knutson (2021): Changes in Atlantic Major Hurricane Frequency Since the Late-19th Century. Nature Communications.
This setup mimics ice lying above the drainage system. In the experiment, a fluid-filled blister is generated via liquid injection into the interface between a transparent elastic layer and a porous substrate. After injection of liquid, the fluid permeates from the blister through the porous substrate, the blister volume V(t) relaxes exponentially with time. Our lab experiments show that varying the permeability of the porous substrate k significantly impacts the relaxation timescale in the experiments.
Petsev, Nikolai D.; Nikoubashman, Arash; Latinwo, Folarin
Source code for our genetic algorithm optimization investigation of conglomerate and racemic chiral crystals. In this work, we address challenges in determining the stable structures formed by chiral molecules by applying the framework of genetic algorithms to predict the ground state crystal lattices formed by a chiral tetramer model. Using this code, we explore the relative stability and structures of the model’s conglomerate and racemic crystals, and extract a structural phase diagram for the stable Bravais crystal types in the zero-temperature limit.
The dataset contains the model file for the Global Adjoint Tomography Model 25 (GLAD-M25). The model file contains parameters defined on the spectral-element mesh and is recommend to be used in SPECFEM3D GLOBE for seismic wave simulation at the global scale.
China is the world's largest carbon emitter and suffers from severe air pollution. About one million deaths in China were attributable to air pollution in 2017. Alternative energy vehicles (AEVs), e.g. electric, hydrogen fuel cell, and natural gas vehicles, can help achieve both carbon emission mitigation and air quality improvement. However, climate, air quality and health co-benefit of AEVs powered by deeply decarbonized electricity generation remain poorly quantified. Here, we conduct a quantitative integrated assessment of the air quality, health, carbon emission mitigation and economic benefits of AEV deployment as the electricity grid decarbonizes in China. We find population-weighted annual PM2.5 and summer O3 concentration can decrease as large as 5.7μgm−3 and 4.9ppb. Annual avoided premature mortalities and years of life lost resulting from improved ambient air pollution can be as large as ~329,000 persons and ~1,611,000 years. We thus show that maximizing climate, air quality and health benefits of AEV deployment in China requires rapid decarbonization of the power system.
In our study, we compare the three dimensional (3D) morphologic characteristics of Earth's first reef-building animals (archaeocyath sponges) with those of modern, photosynthetic corals. Within this repository are the 3D image data products for both groups of animals. The archaeocyath images were produced through serial grinding and imaging with the Grinding, Imaging, and Reconstruction Instrument at Princeton University. The images in this repository are the downsampled data products used in our study, and the full resolution (>2TB) image stacks are available upon request from the author. For the coral image data, the computed tomography (CT) images of all samples are included at full resolution. Also included in this repository are the manual and automated outline coordinates of the archaeocyath and coral branches, which can be directly used for morphological study.
The dataset is a compilation of real time ground observations of criteria pollutants monitored at the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) continuous stations in India, from 2015-2019. Pollutants included are PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 and are archived at every hour for all stations across India.
Since 1850 the concentration of atmospheric methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, has more than doubled. Recent studies suggest that emission inventories may be missing sources and underestimating emissions. To investigate whether offshore oil and gas platforms leak CH4 during normal operation, we measured CH4 mole fractions around eight oil and gas production platforms in the North Sea which were neither flaring gas nor off-loading oil. We use the measurements from summer 2017, along with meteorological data, in a Gaussian plume model to estimate CH4 emissions from each platform. We find CH4 mole fractions of between 11 and 370 ppb above background concentrations downwind of the platforms measured, corresponding to a median CH4 emission of 6.8 g CH4 s-1 for each platform, with a range of 2.9 to 22.3 g CH4 s-1. When matched to production records, during our measurements individual platforms lost between 0.04% and 1.4% of gas produced with a median loss of 0.23%. When the measured platforms are considered collectively, (i.e. the sum of platforms’ emission fluxes weighted by the sum of the platforms’ production), we estimate the CH4 loss to be 0.19% of gas production. These estimates are substantially higher than the emissions most recently reported to the National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) for total CH4 loss from United Kingdom platforms in the North Sea. The NAEI reports CH4 losses from the offshore oil and gas platforms we measured to be 0.13% of gas production, with most of their emissions coming from gas flaring and offshore oil loading, neither of which were taking place at the time of our measurements. All oil and gas platforms we observed were found to leak CH4 during normal operation and much of this leakage has not been included in UK emission inventories. Further research is required to accurately determine total CH4 leakage from all offshore oil and gas operations and to properly include the leakage in national and international emission inventories.
Zhou, Mi; Peng, Liqun; Zhang, Lin; Mauzerall, Denise L.
This dataset is created for the paper titled 'Environmental Benefits and Household Costs of Clean Heating Options in Northern China' and published on Nature Sustainability. Based on a 2015 regional anthropogenic emission inventory (base case), we propose seven counterfactual scenarios in which all 2015 residential solid fuel heating in northern China switches to one of the following non-district heating options: clean coal with improved stoves (CCIS), natural gas heaters (NGH), resistance heaters (RH), or air-to-air heat pumps (AAHP). This dataset provides the following gridded information for the base case and each clean heating scenario: (1) annual residential heating emissions for PM2.5/NOx/SO2; (2) monthly mean surface PM2.5 concentrations from the WRF-Chem model; (3) annual PM2.5-related premature deaths calculated by the GEMM model; (4) 2015 population in China; (5) mask for provinces in China; (6) longitude and latitude of each grid center.
Numerical data is tabulated for all plots (Figures 2, 3a-b, 4-89, S1, S4a-b,d, S5a-b,d, S6-S156) and included as separate spreadsheets categorized by figure in a .zip file in the Supplementary Material. Error bars in Figure 4 show the spread of data observed for 4 and 5 trials on independent samples for MIL-101 and MOF-235, respectively. Figure 6a shows the average of triplicate filtrate test conversions with error propagated based on this spread. Figures 6b and S165 error bars on rate constants are determined based on propagated conversion uncertainty for independent trials and extracted standard deviations of pseudo-first order rate constants from linearized plots. Error bars on other plots represent propagation of experimental uncertainty on single trials.
This dataset contains input files, training data and other files related to the machine learning models developed during the work by Muniz et al. In this work, we construct machine learning models based on the MB-pol many-body model. We find that the training set should include cluster configurations as well as liquid phase configurations in order to accurately represent both liquid and VLE properties. The results attest for the ability of machine learning models to accurately represent many-body potentials and provide an efficient avenue for water simulations.
Pacheco, Diego A; Thiberge, Stephan; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios; Murthy, Mala
Sensory pathways are typically studied starting at receptor neurons and following postsynaptic neurons into the brain. However, this leads to a bias in analysis of activity towards the earliest layers of processing. Here, we present new methods for volumetric neural imaging with precise across-brain registration, to characterize auditory activity throughout the entire central brain of Drosophila and make comparisons across trials, individuals, and sexes. We discover that auditory activity is present in most central brain regions and in neurons responsive to other modalities. Auditory responses are temporally diverse, but the majority of activity is tuned to courtship song features. Auditory responses are stereotyped across trials and animals in early mechanosensory regions, becoming more variable at higher layers of the putative pathway, and this variability is largely independent of spontaneous movements. This study highlights the power of using an unbiased, brain-wide approach for mapping the functional organization of sensory activity.