Brunner, Claudia E.; Kiefer, Janik; Hansen, Martin O. L.; Hultmark, Marcus
Reynolds number effects on the aerodynamics of the moderately thick NACA 0021 airfoil were experimentally studied by means of surface-pressure measurements. The use of a high-pressure wind tunnel allowed for variation of the chord Reynolds number over a range of 5.0 × 10^5 ≤ Re_c ≤ 7.9 × 10^6. The angle of attack was incrementally increased and decreased over a range of 0° ≤ alpha ≤ 40°, spanning both the attached and stalled regime at all Reynolds numbers. As such, attached and separated conditions, as well as the static stall and reattachment processes were studied. A fundamental change in the flow behaviour was observed around Re_c= 2.0 × 10^6. As the Reynolds number was increased beyond this value, the stall type gradually shifted from trailing-edge stall to leading-edge stall. The stall angle and the maximum lift coefficient increased with Reynolds number. Once the flow was separated, the separation point moved upstream and the suction peak decreased in magnitude with increasing Reynolds number. Two distinct types of hysteresis in reattachment were observed.
One aspect of the interaction between fast ions and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities is the fast ion transport. Coupled kink and tearing MHD instabilities have also been reported to cause fast ion transport. Recently, the ''kick" model has been developed to compute the evolution of the fast ion distribution from the neutral beam injection using instabilities as phase space resonance sources. The goal of this paper is to utilize the kick model to understand the physics of fast ion transport caused by the coupled kink and tearing modes. Soft X-ray diagnostics are used to identify the mode parameters in NSTX. The comparison of neutron rates measured and computed from time-dependent TRANSP simulation with the kick model shows the coupling of kink and tearing mode is important in determination of the fast ion transport. The numerical scan of the mode parameters shows that the relative phase of the kink and tearing modes and the overlapping of kink and tearing mode resonances in the phase space can affect the fast ion transport, suggesting that the synergy of the coupled modes may be causing the fast ion transpor
Chang, Claire H. C.; Lazaridi, Christina; Yeshurun, Yaara; Norman, Kenneth A.; Hasson, Uri
This study examined how the brain dynamically updates event representations by integrating new information over multiple minutes while segregating irrelevant input. A professional writer custom-designed a narrative with two independent storylines, interleaving across minute-long segments (ABAB). In the last (C) part, characters from the two storylines meet and their shared history is revealed. Part C is designed to induce the spontaneous recall of past events, upon the recurrence of narrative motifs from A/B, and to shed new light on them. Our fMRI results showed storyline-specific neural patterns, which were reinstated (i.e. became more active) during storyline transitions. This effect increased along the processing timescale hierarchy, peaking in the default mode network. Similarly, the neural reinstatement of motifs was found during part C. Furthermore, participants showing stronger motif reinstatement performed better in integrating A/B and C events, demonstrating the role of memory reactivation in information integration over intervening irrelevant events.
In the attention schema theory, the brain constructs a model of attention, the attention schema, to aid in the endogenous control of attention. Growing behavioral evidence appears to support this proposal. However, a central question remains: does a controller of attention actually benefit by having access to an attention schema? We constructed an artificial, deep Q-learning, neural network agent that was trained to control a simple form of visuospatial attention, tracking a stimulus with its attention spotlight in order to solve a catch task. The agent was tested with and without access to an attention schema. In both conditions, the agent received sufficient information such that it should, theoretically, be able to learn the task. We found that with an attention schema present, the agent learned to control its attention spotlight and learned the catch task to a high degree of performance. Once the agent learned, if the attention schema was disabled, the agent could no longer perform effectively. If the attention schema was removed before learning began, the agent was drastically impaired at learning. The results show how the presence of even a simple attention schema provides a profound benefit to a controller of attention. We interpret these results as supporting the central argument of AST: the brain evolved an attention schema because of its practical benefit in the endogenous control of attention.
The dielectric function for "Astrodust" grain material is provided for different assumed values of the dust grain shape (spheroid axis ratio) and porosity (vacuum fraction), and fraction of the interstellar iron present as metallic inclusions. For each case, the dielectric function is obtained by requiring that the grains reproduce the observed infrared opacity, and match to a physically reasonable dielectric function at 1 micron, and extending to X-ray energies. The derived dielectric functions satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relations. Dielectric functions are provided from 1 Angstrom to 5 cm (12.4 keV to 2.59e-5 eV).
For each dielectric function, we also calculate absorption and scattering corss sections for spheroidal grains, for three orientations of the grain relative to incident linearly-polarized light, for wavelengths from the Lyman limit (0.0912 micron) to the microwave (4 cm), and grain "effective radii" a_eff from 3.162A to 5.012 micron.
Verdoolaege, G.; Kaye, S.M.; Angioni, C.; Kardaunn, O.W.J.F.; Maslov, M.; Romanelli, M.; Ryter, F.; Thomsen, K.
The multi-machine ITPA Global H-mode Confinement Database has been upgraded with new data from JET with the ITER-like wall and ASDEX Upgrade with the full tungsten wall. This paper describes the new database and presents results of regression analysis to estimate the global energy confinement scaling in H-mode plasmas using a standard power law. Various subsets of the database are considered, focusing on type of wall and divertor materials, confinement regime (all H-modes, ELMy H or ELM-free) and ITER-like constraints. Apart from ordinary least squares, two other, robust regression techniques are applied, which take into account uncertainty on all variables. Regression on data from individual devices shows that, generally, the confinement dependence on density and the power degradation are weakest in the fully metallic devices. Using the multi-machine scalings, predictions are made of the confinement time in a standard ELMy H-mode scenario in ITER. The uncertainty on the scaling parameters is discussed with a view to practically useful error bars on the parameters and predictions. One of the derived scalings for ELMy H-modes on an ITER-like subset is studied in particular and compared to the IPB98(y,2) confinement scaling in engineering and dimensionless form. Transformation of this new scaling from engineering variables to dimensionless quantities is shown to result in large error bars on the dimensionless scaling. Regression analysis in the space of dimensionless variables is therefore proposed as an alternative, yielding acceptable estimates for the dimensionless scaling. The new scaling, which is dimensionally correct within the uncertainties, suggests that some dependencies of confinement in the multi- machine database can be reconciled with parameter scans in individual devices. This includes vanishingly small dependence of confinement on line-averaged density and normalized plasma pressure (β), as well as a noticeable, positive dependence on effective atomic mass and plasma triangularity. Extrapolation of this scaling to ITER yields a somewhat lower confinement time compared to the IPB98(y, 2) prediction, possibly related to the considerably weaker dependence on major radius in the new scaling (slightly above linear). Further studies are needed to compare more flexible regression models with the power law used here. In addition, data from more devices concerning possible ‘hidden variables’ could help to determine their influence on confinement, while adding data in sparsely populated areas of the parameter space may contribute to further disentangling some of the global confinement dependencies in tokamak plasmas.
Basic physics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows has long been studied within the framework of wave-kinetic theory. Recently, this framework has been re-examined from first principles, which has led to more accurate yet still tractable "improved" wave-kinetic equations. In particular, these equations reveal an important effect of the zonal-flow "curvature" (the second radial derivative of the flow velocity) on dynamics and stability of drift waves and zonal flows. We overview these recent findings and present a consolidated high-level picture of (mostly quasilinear) zonal-flow physics within reduced models of drift-wave turbulence.
Wang, Rui; Guo, Xuehui; Pan, Da; Kelly, James; Bash, Jesse; Sun, Kang; Paulot, Fabien; Clarisse, Lieven; Van Damme, Martin; Whitburn, Simon; Coheur, Pierre-François; Clerbaux, Cathy; Zondlo, Mark
Monthly, high resolution (~2 km) ammonia (NH3) column maps from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) were developed across the contiguous United States and adjacent areas. Ammonia hotspots (95th percentile of the column distribution) were highly localized with a characteristic length scale of 12 km and median area of 152 km2. Five seasonality classes were identified with k-means++ clustering. The Midwest and eastern United States had a broad, spring maximum of NH3 (67% of hotspots in this cluster). The western United States, in contrast, showed a narrower mid-summer peak (32% of hotspots). IASI spatiotemporal clustering was consistent with those from the Ammonia Monitoring Network. CMAQ and GFDL-AM3 modeled NH3 columns have some success replicating the seasonal patterns but did not capture the regional differences. The high spatial-resolution monthly NH3 maps serve as a constraint for model simulations and as a guide for the placement of future, ground-based network sites.
Martin, James K; Sheehan, Joseph P; Bratton, Benjamin P; Moore, Gabriel M; Mateus, André; Li, Sophia Hsin-Jung; Kim, Hahn; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Typas, Athanasios; Savitski, Mikhail M; Wilson, Maxwell Z; Gitai, Zemer
The rise of antibiotic resistance and declining discovery of new antibiotics have created a global health crisis. Of particular concern, no new antibiotic classes have been approved for treating Gram-negative pathogens in decades. Here, we characterize a compound, SCH-79797, that kills both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria through a unique dual-targeting mechanism of action (MoA) with undetectably-low resistance frequencies. To characterize its MoA, we combined quantitative imaging, proteomic, genetic, metabolomic, and cell-based assays. This pipeline demonstrates that SCH-79797 has two independent cellular targets, folate metabolism and bacterial membrane integrity, and outperforms combination treatments in killing MRSA persisters. Building on the molecular core of SCH-79797, we developed a derivative, Irresistin-16, with increased potency and showed its efficacy against Neisseria gonorrheae in a mouse vaginal infection model. This promising antibiotic lead suggests that combining multiple MoAs onto a single chemical scaffold may be an underappreciated approach to targeting challenging bacterial pathogens.