Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Landsea, Christopher; Zhang, Wei; Villarini, Gabriele; Knutson, Thomas
These are the data and scripts supporting the manuscript: Vecchi, Landsea, Zhang, Villarini and Knutson (2021): Changes in Atlantic Major Hurricane Frequency Since the Late-19th Century. Nature Communications.
A quasi-coherent mode with frequency f = 40 kHz is observed in Ohmic plasmas in NSTX with the gas puff imaging diagnostic (GPI). This mode is located predominantly just inside the separatrix, with a maximum fluctuation amplitude similar to that of the broadband turbulence in the same frequency range. The quasi-coherent mode has a poloidal wavelength 16 cm and a poloidal velocity 49 km/s in the electron diamagnetic direction, which are similar to the characteristics expected from a linear drift-wave like mode in the edge.
Choi, W.; Poli, F. M.; Li, M. H.; Baek, S. G.; Gorenlenkova, M.; Ding, B. J.; Gong, X. Z.; Chan, A.; Duan, Y. M.; Hu, J. H.; Lian, H.; Lin, S. Y.; Liu, H. Q.; Qian, J. P.; Wallace, G.; Wang, Y. M.; Zang, Q.; Zhao, H. L.
Synergistic effects between two frequencies of lower hybrid (LH) waves—operating at 2.45 and 4.6 GHz—were observed in experiment on EAST for the first time. At low density (n_e,lin ≈ 2.0 × 10^19m^−3), simultaneous injection of a 65/35 mix of 2.45 GHz/4.6 GHz power achieved an LHCD efficiency that was 25% higher than what should be expected from the linear combination of the two sources. The experiment was interpreted with time-dependent simulations, using the equilibrium and transport solver TRANSP, coupled with the ray-tracing code GENRAY and the Fokker-Planck solver CQL3D. For each discharge, profiles of current and hard x-ray from simulation and measurement agree within uncertainties. An examination of the electron distribution function indicates that the LH synergy is supported by the increased width of the LH resonance plateau in the simultaneous injection case compared to independent injection.
Hao, G.Z; Heidbrink, W.W.; Liu, D.; Stagner, L.; Podesta, M.; Bortolon, A.
Analysis of fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) data on National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) shows that the cold Dα line contaminates the FIDA baseline. The scattered light is comparable to the FIDA emission. A scattering correction is required to extract the FIDA signal. Two methods that relate the scattered light contamination to the intensity of the cold Dα line are employed. One method uses laboratory measurements with a calibration lamp; the other method uses data acquired during plasma operation and singular value decomposition analysis. After correction, both the FIDA spectra and spatial profile are in better agreement with theoretical predictions.
The MAST-U fusion plasma research device, the upgrade to the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak, has recently completed its first campaign of physics operation. MAST-U operated with Ohmic, or one or two neutral beams for heating, at 400-800 kA plasma current, in conventional or “SuperX” divertor configurations. Equilibrium reconstructions provide key plasma physics parameters vs. time for each discharge, and diagrams are produced which show where the prevalence of operation occurred as well as the limits in various operational spaces. When compared to stability limits, the operation of MAST-U so far has generally stayed out of the low q, low density instability region, and below the high density Greenwald limit, high beta global stability limits, and high elongation vertical stability limit. MAST-U still has the potential to reach higher elongation, which could benefit the plasma performance. Despite the majority of operation happening below established stability limits, disruptions did occur in the flat-top phase of MAST-U plasmas. The reasons for these disruptions are highlighted, and possible strategies to avoid them and to extend the operational space of MAST-U in future campaigns are discussed.
A scintillator type fast ion loss detector measures the gyroradius and pitch angle distribution of superthermal ions escaping from a magnetically confined fusion plasma at a single location. Described here is a technique for optimizing the angular orientation of such a detector in an axisymmetric tokamak geometry in order to intercept losses over a useful and interesting ranges of pitch angle. The method consists of evaluating the detector acceptance as a function of the fast ion constants of motion, i.e. energy, canonical toroidal momentum, and magnetic moment. The detector acceptance can then be plotted in a plane of constant energy and compared with the relevant orbit class boundaries and fast ion source distributions. Knowledge of expected or interesting mechanisms of loss can further guide selection of the detector orientation. The example of a fast ion loss detector for the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) is considered.
The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has undergone a major upgrade, and the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) Project was completed in the summer of 2015. NSTX-U first plasma was subsequently achieved, diagnostic and control systems have been commissioned, H-Mode accessed, magnetic error fields identified and mitigated, and the first physics research campaign carried out. During 10 run weeks of operation, NSTX-U surpassed NSTX-record pulse-durations and toroidal fields, and high-performance ~1MA H-mode plasmas comparable to the best of NSTX have been sustained near and slightly above the n=1 no-wall stability limit and with H-mode confinement multiplier H98y2 above 1. Transport and turbulence studies in L-mode plasmas have identified the coexistence of at least two ion-gyro-scale turbulent micro-instabilities near the same radial location but propagating in opposite (i.e. ion and electron diamagnetic) directions. These modes have the characteristics of ion-temperature gradient and micro-tearing modes, respectively, and the role of these modes in contributing to thermal transport is under active investigation. The new second more tangential neutral beam injection was observed to significantly modify the stability of two types of Alfven Eigenmodes. Improvements in offline disruption forecasting were made in the areas of identification of rotating MHD modes and other macroscopic instabilities using the Disruption Event Characterization and Forecasting (DECAF) code. Lastly, the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) was utilized on NSTX-U for the first time and enabled assessments of the correlation between boronized wall conditions and plasma performance. These and other highlights from the first run campaign of NSTX-U are described.
In one popular description of the L-H transition, energy transfer to the mean flows directly depletes turbulence fluctuation energy, resulting in suppression of the turbulence and a corresponding transport bifurcation. However, electron parallel force balance couples nonzonal velocity fluctuations with electron pressure fluctuations on rapid timescales, comparable with the electron transit time. For this reason, energy in the nonzonal velocity stays in a fairly fixed ratio to the free energy in electron density fluctuations, at least for frequency scales much slower than electron transit. In order for direct depletion of the energy in turbulent fluctuations to cause the L-H transition, energy transfer via Reynolds stress must therefore drain enough energy to significantly reduce the sum of the free energy in nonzonal velocities and electron pressure fluctuations. At low k, the electron thermal free energy is much larger than the energy in nonzonal velocities, posing a stark challenge for this model of the L-H transition.