Stellarators offer a promising path towards fusion reactors, but their design and construction are complicated by stringent tolerance requirements on highly complex 3D coils. A potential way to simplify the engineering requirements for stellarators is to use simple planar toroidal field coils along with permanent magnet arrays to generate shaping fields. In order to ensure sufficient field accuracy while minimizing engineering complexity and system cost, new techniques are required to correct the field produced by the permanent magnet arrays to within requirements set by plasma physics. This work describes a novel correction method developed for this purpose. This analysis is applied to the design of a quasi-axisymmetric stellarator that employs a combination of permanent magnets and planar toroidal field coils to generate its magnetic field. Analysis techniques and initial results using the method for error correction on a proposed permanent magnet stellarator are shown, and it is demonstrated that the method successfully meets the design requirements of the project.
Mondal, Shanka Subhra; Webb, Taylor; Cohen, Jonathan
A dataset of Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM)-like problems using realistically rendered
3D shapes, based on source code from CLEVR (a popular visual-question-answering dataset) (Johnson, J., Hariharan, B., Van Der Maaten, L., Fei-Fei, L., Lawrence Zitnick, C., & Girshick, R. (2017). Clevr: A diagnostic dataset for compositional language and elementary visual reasoning. In Proceedings of the IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition (pp. 2901-2910)).
Hager, Robert; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Sharma, Amil Y.; Churchill, Randy Michael; Chang, C. S.; Scheinberg, Aaron
The simplified delta-f mixed-variable/pull-back electromagnetic simulation algorithm implemented in XGC for core plasma simulations by Cole et al. [Phys. Plasmas 28, 034501 (2021)] has been generalized to a total-f electromagnetic algorithm that can include, for the first time, the boundary plasma in diverted magnetic geometry with neutral particle recycling, turbulence and neoclassical physics.
The delta-f mixed-variable/pull-back electromagnetic implementation is based on the pioneering work by Kleiber and Mischenko et al. [Kleiber et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 032501 (2016); Mishchenko et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 238, 194 (2019)].
An electromagnetic demonstration simulation is performed in a DIII-D-like, H-mode boundary plasma, including a corresponding comparative electrostatic simulation, which confirms that the electromagnetic simulation is necessary for a higher fidelity understanding of the electron particle and heat transport even at the low-beta pedestal foot in the vicinity of the magnetic separatrix.
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are some of the most energetic and violent events in our solar system. The prediction and understanding of CMEs is of particular importance due to the impact that they can have on Earth-based satellite systems, and in extreme cases, ground-based electronics. CMEs often occur when long-lived magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) anchored to the solar surface destabilize and erupt away from the Sun. One potential cause for these eruptions is an ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability such as the kink or torus instability. Previous experiments on the Magnetic Reconnection eXperiment (MRX) revealed a class of MFRs that were torus-unstable but kink-stable, which failed to erupt. These “failed-tori” went through a process similar to Taylor relaxation where the toroidal current was redistributed before the eruption ultimately failed. We have investigated this behavior through additional diagnostics that measure the current distribution at the foot points and the energy distribution before and after an event. These measurements indicate that ideal MHD effects are sufficient to explain the energy distribution changes during failed torus events. This excludes Taylor relaxation as a possible mechanism of current redistribution during an event. A new model that only requires non-ideal effects in a thin layer above the electrodes is presented to explain the observed phenomena. This work broadens our understanding of the stability of MFRs and the mechanism behind the failed torus through the improved prediction of the torus instability and through new diagnostics to measure the energy inventory and current profile at the foot points.
The dynamic interplay between the core and the edge plasma has important consequences in the confinement and heating of fusion plasma. The transport of the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL) plasma imposes boundary conditions on the core plasma, and neutral transport through the SOL influences the core plasma sourcing. In order to better study these effects in a self-consistent, time-dependent fashion with reasonable turn-around time, a reduced model is needed. In this paper we introduce the SOL Box Model, a reduced SOL model that calculates the plasma temperature and density in the SOL given the core-to-edge particle and power fluxes and recycling coefficients. The analytic nature of the Box Model allows one to readily incorporate SOL physics in time-dependent transport solvers for pulse design applications in the control room. Here we demonstrate such a coupling with the core transport solver TRANSP and compare the results with density and temperature measurements, obtained through Thomson scattering and Langmuir probes, of an NSTX discharge. Implications for future interpretive and predictive simulations are discussed.
Notterman, Daniel A; Schneper, Lisa M; Drake, Amanda; Piyasena, Chinthika
This entry contains the data used in the PLOS ONE publication entitled, "Characteristics of salivary telomere length shortening in preterm infants" by Schneper et al. The objective of the study was to examine the association between gestational age, telomere length (TL) and rate of shortening in newborns. Genomic DNA was isolated from buccal samples of 39 term infants at birth and one year and 32 preterm infants at birth, term-adjusted age (40 weeks post-conception) and age one-year corrected for gestational duration. Telomere length was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Demographic and clinical data were collected during clinic or research visits and from hospital records. Socioeconomic status was estimated using the deprivation category (DEPCAT) scores derived from the Carstairs score of the subject's postal code.
Microscopy images are part of a paper entitled "Structured foraging of soil predators unveils functional responses to bacterial defenses" by Fernando Rossine, Gabriel Vercelli, Corina Tarnita, and Thomas Gregor. For detailed acquisition methods see the paper. Experiments were performed between 2019 and 2020 at Princeton University. Two types of images are provided, macroscopic and microscopic widefiled Images. Macroscopic images all show Petri dishes covered in fluorescent bacteria being consumed by amoebae. Images are shown for D. discoideum, P. violaceum, and A. castellanii. Images depicting drug treatments (Nystatin and Fluorouracil) were obtained using D. discoideum. Images used for the creation of a profile were all taken within 30 minutes of each other. Within each directory numbered images are independent replicates. The raw video directory contains time series for dishes under drug treatments. Each numbered folder is a sequence of photos (taken 30 minutes apart of each other) of a single dish. Microscopic images all show amoebae consuming bacteria on a petri dish. The 45 minute videos show either edge cells (located at the edge of amoebae colonies), or inner cells (located 2.5 millimeters towards the center of the colony, from the edge). Videos are confocal stacks, with bacteria showing in green and amoebae appearing as black holes within the bacterial lawn. As was for the macroscopic images, images are shown for D. discoideum, P. violaceum, and A. castellanii. Images depicting drug treatments (Nystatin and Fluorouracil) were obtained using D. discoideum.