Chen, Xu; Gallagher, Kevin P.; Mauzerall, Denise L.
Global power generation must rapidly decarbonize by mid-century to meet the goal of stabilizing global warming below 2 degree Celsius. To meet this objective, multilateral development banks (MDBs) have gradually reduced fossil fuel and increased renewable energy financing. Meanwhile, globally active national development finance institutions (DFIs) from Japan and South Korea have continued to finance overseas coal plants. Less is known about the increasingly active Chinese DFIs. Here we construct a new dataset of China’s policy banks’ overseas power generation financing and compare their technology choices and impact on generation capacity with MDBs and Japanese and South Korean DFIs. We find Chinese DFI power financing since 2000 has dramatically increased, surpassing other East Asian national DFIs and the major MDBs’ collective public sector power financing in 2013. As most Chinese DFI financing is currently in coal, decarbonization of their power investments will be critical in reducing future carbon emissions from recipient countries.
Chen, Xu; Li, Zhongshu; Gallagher, Kevin P.; Mauzerall, Denise L.
Power sector decarbonization requires a fundamental redirection of global finance from fossil fuel infrastructure towards low carbon technologies. Bilateral finance plays an important role in the global energy transition to non-fossil energy, but an understanding of its impact is limited. Here, for the first time, we compare the influence of overseas finance from the three largest economies – United States, China, and Japan – on power generation development beyond their borders and evaluate the associated long-term CO2 emissions. We construct a new dataset of Japanese and U.S. overseas power generation finance between 2000-2018 by analyzing their national development finance institutions’ press releases and annual reports and tracking their foreign direct investment at the power plant level. Synthesizing this new data with previously developed datasets for China, we find that the three countries’ overseas financing concentrated in fossil fuel power technologies over the studied period. Financing commitments from China, Japan, and the United States facilitated 101 GW, 95 GW, and 47 GW overseas power capacity additions, respectively. The majority of facilitated capacity additions are fossil fuel plants (64% for China, 87% for Japan, and 66% for the United States). Each of the countries’ contributions to non-hydro renewable generation was less than 15% of their facilitated capacity additions. Together, we estimate that overseas fossil fuel power financing through 2018 from these three countries will lock in 24 Gt CO2 emissions by 2060. If climate targets are to be met, replacing bilateral fossil fuel financing with financing of renewable technologies is crucial.
The data provided in this DataSpace consists of sample training data to be used for Fluorescence Reconstruction Microscopy (FRM) testing. We provide a subset of the keratinocyte (10x magnification) dataset used in our paper, in which interested parties may find more complete information about our data collection methods. Matched pairs of phase contrast and fluorescent images are given. The nuclei were stained using Hoechst 33342 and imaged using a standard DAPI filter set.
The data provided in this DataSpace consists of sample training data to be used for Fluorescence Reconstruction Microscopy (FRM) testing. We provide a subset of the MDCK (20x magnification) dataset used in our paper, in which interested parties may find more complete information about our data collection methods. Matched pairs of DIC and fluorescent images are given. The cells stably expressed E-cadherin:RFP which enabled imaging of junctional fluorescence, while the nuclei were stained using Hoechst 33342 and imaged using a standard DAPI filter set.
We provide all the test data and corresponding predictions for our paper, “Practical Fluorescence Reconstruction Microscopy for High-Content Imaging”. Please refer to the Methods section in this paper for experimental details. For each experimental condition, we provide the input transmitted-light images (either phase contrast or DIC), the ground truth fluorescence images, and the output predicted fluorescence images which should reconstruct the ground truth fluorescence images.
Mondal, Shanka Subhra; Webb, Taylor; Cohen, Jonathan
A dataset of Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM)-like problems using realistically rendered
3D shapes, based on source code from CLEVR (a popular visual-question-answering dataset) (Johnson, J., Hariharan, B., Van Der Maaten, L., Fei-Fei, L., Lawrence Zitnick, C., & Girshick, R. (2017). Clevr: A diagnostic dataset for compositional language and elementary visual reasoning. In Proceedings of the IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition (pp. 2901-2910)).
Extrapolation -- the ability to make inferences that go beyond the scope of one's experiences -- is a hallmark of human intelligence. By contrast, the generalization exhibited by contemporary neural network algorithms is largely limited to interpolation between data points in their training corpora. In this paper, we consider the challenge of learning representations that support extrapolation. We introduce a novel visual analogy benchmark that allows the graded evaluation of extrapolation as a function of distance from the convex domain defined by the training data. We also introduce a simple technique, context normalization, that encourages representations that emphasize the relations between objects. We find that this technique enables a significant improvement in the ability to extrapolate, considerably outperforming a number of competitive techniques.
This item provides access to all configurations of single-chain nanoparticles analyzed in the manuscript "Sequence Patterning, Morphology, and Dispersity in Single-Chain Nanoparticles: Insights from Simulation and Machine Learning" by Roshan A. Patel, Sophia Colmenares, and Michael A. Webb (DOI: 10.1021/acspolymersau.3c00007). The single-chain nanoparticles derive from 320 unique precursor chains that are distinguished by the fraction of linker beads that decorate a fixed-length polymer backbone and the distribution or blockiness of those linker beads. The data is provided in the form of serialized object using the `pickle' python module. The data was compiled using Python version 3.8.8 and Clang 10.0.0. The Python object loaded from the .pkl file is a nested list, with the first dimension having 7,680 entries for the 7,680 unique single-chain nanoparticles produced in the aforementioned paper. Each of those 7,680 entries is itself a list with 20 entries, representing the 20 different simulation snapshots of the given single-chain nanoparticle. Each of the 20 entries is another list with two entries, with the first being a numpy.ndarray containing the x,y,z coordinates of all the beads comprising the single-chain nanoparticle and the second being a numpy.ndarray with a numerical encoding to indicate whether the beads are backbone (indicated as '0') or linker beads (indicated as '1'). Altogether, this provides 153,600 configurations of single-chain nanoparticles.
Here we publish the data used in paper "Junming Huang, Gavin Cook, and Yu Xie, Large-scale Quantitative Evidence of Media Impact on Public Opinion toward China". This dataset include estimated sentiments on The New York Times on China in eight topics from 1970 to 2019, and a time series of public attitude aggregated from surveys on China.