Woods, B. J. Q.; Duarte, V. N.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Podestà, M.; Vann, R. G. L.
Abrupt large events in the Alfvenic and sub-Alfvenic frequency bands in tokamaks are typically correlated with increased fast-ion loss. Here, machine learning is used to speed up the laborious process of characterizing the behavior of magnetic perturbations from corresponding frequency spectrograms that are typically identified by humans. The analysis allows for comparison between different mode character (such as quiescent, fixed frequency, and chirping, avalanching) and plasma parameters obtained from the TRANSP code, such as the ratio of the neutral beam injection (NBI) velocity and the Alfven velocity (v_inj./v_A), the q-profile, and the ratio of the neutral beam beta and the total plasma beta (beta_beam,i / beta). In agreement with the previous work by Fredrickson et al., we find a correlation between beta_beam,i and mode character. In addition, previously unknown correlations are found between moments of the spectrograms and mode character. Character transition from quiescent to nonquiescent behavior for magnetic fluctuations in the 50200-kHz frequency band is observed along the boundary v_phi ~ (1/4)(v_inj. - 3v_A), where v_phi is the rotation velocity.
Hvasta, M. G.; Dudt, D.; Fisher, A. E.; Kolemen, E.
A 'weighted magnetic bearing' has been developed to improve the performance of
rotating Lorentz-force flowmeters (RLFFs). Experiments have shown that the new bearing
reduces frictional losses within a double-sided, disc-style RLFF to negligible levels.
Operating such an RLFF under 'frictionless' conditions provides two major benefits.
First, the steady-state velocity of the RLFF magnets matches the average velocity of the
flowing liquid at low flow rates. This enables an RLFF to make accurate volumetric flow
measurements without any calibration or prior knowledge of the fluid properties. Second,
due to minimized frictional losses, an RLFF is able to measure low flow rates that cannot
be detected when conventional, high-friction bearings are used. This paper provides a
brief background on RLFFs, gives a detailed description of weighted magnetic bearings,
and compares experimental RLFF data to measurements taken with a commercially available
The history of organismal evolution, seawater chemistry, and paleoclimate is recorded in layers of carbonate sedimentary rock. Meter-scale cyclic stacking patterns in these carbonates often are interpreted as representing sea level change. A reliable sedimentary proxy for eustasy would be profoundly useful for reconstructing paleoclimate, since sea level responds to changes in temperature and ice volume. However, the translation from water depth to carbonate layering has proven difficult, with recent surveys of modern shallow water platforms revealing little correlation between carbonate facies (i.e., grain size, sedimentary bed forms, ecology) and water depth. We train a convolutional neural network with satellite imagery and new field observations from a 3,000 km2 region northwest of Andros Island (Bahamas) to generate a facies map with 5 m resolution. Leveraging a newly-published bathymetry for the same region, we test the hypothesis that one can extract a signal of water depth change, not simply from individual facies, but from sequences of facies transitions analogous to vertically stacked carbonate strata. Our Hidden Markov Model (HMM) can distinguish relative sea level fall from random variability with ∼90% accuracy. Finally, since shallowing-upward patterns can result from local (autogenic) processes in addition to forced mechanisms such as eustasy, we search for statistical tools to diagnose the presence or absence of external forcings on relative sea level. With a new data-driven forward model that simulates how modern facies mosaics evolve to stack strata, we show how different sea level forcings generate characteristic patterns of cycle thicknesses in shallow carbonates, providing a new tool for quantitative reconstruction of ancient sea level conditions from the geologic record.
Podesta, M.; M. Gorelenkova; E.D. Fredrickson; N.N. Gorelenkov
Integrated simulations of tokamak discharges typically rely on classical physics to model energetic particle (EP) dynamics. However, there are numerous cases in which energetic particles can suffer additional transport that is not classical in nature. Examples include transport by applied 3D magnetic perturbations and, more notably, by plasma instabilities. Focusing on the effects of instabilities, ad-hoc models can empirically reproduce increased transport, but the choice of transport coefficients is usually somehow arbitrary. New approaches based on physics-based reduced models are being developed to address those issues in a simplified way, while retaining a more correct treatment of resonant wave-particle interactions. The kick model implemented in the tokamak transport code TRANSP is an example of such reduced models. It includes modifications of the EP distribution by instabilities in real and velocity space, retaining correlations between transport in energy and space typical of resonant EP transport. The relevance of EP phase space modifications by instabilities is first discussed in terms of predicted fast ion distribution. Results are compared with those from a simple, ad-hoc diffusive model. It is then shown that the phase-space resolved model can also provide additional insight into important issues such as internal consistency of the simulations and mode stability through the analysis of the power exchanged between energetic particles and the instabilities.
A large-volume flux closure during transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in NSTX-U
is demonstrated through resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. Several
major improvements, including the improved positioning of the divertor poloidal field coils, are projected to improve the CHI start-up phase in NSTX-U. Simulations in the NSTX-U configuration with constant in time coil currents show that with strong flux shaping the injected open field lines (injector flux) rapidly reconnect and form large volume of closed flux surfaces. This is achieved by driving parallel current in the injector flux coil and oppositely directed currents in the flux shaping coils to form a narrow injector flux footprint and push the injector flux into the vessel. As the helicity and plasma are injected into the device, the oppositely directed field lines in the injector region are forced to reconnect through a local Sweet–Parker type reconnection, or to spontaneously reconnect when the elongated current sheet becomes MHD unstable to form plasmoids. In these simulations for the first time, it is found that the closed flux is over 70% of the initial injector flux used to initiate the discharge. These results could work well for the application of transient CHI in devices that employ super conducting coils to generate and sustain the plasma equilibrium.
Halo currents generated during unmitigated tokamak disruptions are known to develop rotating asymmetric features that are of great concern to ITER because they can dynamically amplify the mechanical stresses on the machine. This paper presents a multi-machine analysis of these phenomena. More specifically, data from C-Mod, NSTX, ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, and JET are used to develop empirical scalings of three key quantities: (1) the machine-specific minimum current quench time, tauCQ; (2) the halo current rotation duration, trot; and (3) the average halo current rotation frequency, <fh>. These data reveal that the normalized rotation duration, trot/tauCQ, and the average rotation velocity, <vh>, are surprisingly consistent from machine to machine. Furthermore, comparisons between carbon and metal wall machines show that metal walls have minimal impact on the behavior of rotating halo currents. Finally, upon projecting to ITER, the empirical scalings indicate that substantial halo current rotation above <fh> = 20 Hz is to be expected. More importantly, depending on the projected value of tauCQ in ITER, substantial rotation could also occur in the resonant frequency range of 6-20 Hz. As such, the possibility of damaging halo current rotation during unmitigated disruptions in ITER cannot be ruled out.
Schwartz, J. A.; Emdee, E. D.; Jaworski, M. A; Goldston, R. J.
The lithium vapor box divertor is a concept for handling the extreme divertor heat fluxes in magnetic fusion devices. In a baffled slot divertor, plasma interacts with a dense cloud of Li vapor which radiates and cools the plasma, leading to recombination and detachment. Before testing on a tokamak the concept should be validated: we plan to study detachment and heat redistribution by a Li vapor cloud in laboratory experiments.
Mass changes and temperatures are measured to validate a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo model of neutral Li.
The initial experiment involves a 5 cm diameter steel box containing 10g of Li held at 650 degrees C as vapor flows out a wide nozzle into a similarly-sized box at a lower temperature. Diagnosis is made challenging by the required material compatibility with lithium vapor. Vapor pressure is a steep function of temperature, so to validate mass flow models to within 10%, absolute temperature to within 4.5K is required. The apparatus is designed to be used with an analytical balance to determine mass transport. Details of the apparatus and methods of temperature and mass flow measurements are presented.