Martin, Nicholas R; Blackman, Edith; Bratton, Benjamin P; Chase, Katelyn J; Bartlett, Thomas M; Gitai, Zemer
Bacterial species have diverse cell shapes that enable motility, colonization, and virulence. The cell wall defines bacterial shape and is primarily built by two cytoskeleton-guided synthesis machines, the elongasome and the divisome. However, the mechanisms producing complex shapes, like the curved-rod shape of Vibrio cholerae, are incompletely defined. Previous studies have reported that species-specific regulation of cytoskeleton-guided machines enables formation of complex bacterial shapes such as cell curvature and cellular appendages. In contrast, we report that CrvA and CrvB are sufficient to induce complex cell shape autonomously of the cytoskeleton in V. cholerae. The autonomy of the CrvAB module also enables it to induce curvature in the Gram-negative species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Caulobacter crescentus, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Using inducible gene expression, quantitative microscopy, and biochemistry we show that CrvA and CrvB circumvent the need for patterning via cytoskeletal elements by regulating each other to form an asymmetrically-localized, periplasmic structure that directly binds to the cell wall. The assembly and disassembly of this periplasmic structure enables dynamic changes in cell shape. Bioinformatics indicate that CrvA and CrvB may have diverged from a single ancestral hybrid protein. Using fusion experiments in V. cholerae, we find that a synthetic CrvA/B hybrid protein is sufficient to induce curvature on its own, but that expression of two distinct proteins, CrvA and CrvB, promotes more rapid curvature induction. We conclude that morphological complexity can arise independently of cell shape specification by the core cytoskeleton-guided synthesis machines.
A matrix inversion technique is derived to calculate local ion temperature from line-integrated measurements of an extended emission source in an axisymmetric plasma which exactly corrects for both toroidal velocity and radial velocity components. Local emissivity and toroidal velocity can be directly recovered from line-integrated spectroscopic measurements, but an independent measurement of the radial velocity is necessary to complete the temperature inversion. The extension of this technique to handle the radial velocity is relevant for magnetic reconnection and merging compression devices where temperature inversion from spectroscopic measurements is desired. A simulation demonstrates the effects of radial velocity on the determination of ion temperature.
A comprehensive numerical study has been conducted in order to investigate the stability of beam-driven, sub-cyclotron frequency compressional (CAE) and global (GAE) Alfven Eigenmodes in low aspect ratio plasmas for a wide range of beam parameters. The presence of CAEs and GAEs has previously been linked to anomalous electron temperature profile flattening at high beam power in NSTX experiments, prompting further examination of the conditions for their excitation. Linear simulations are performed with the hybrid MHD-kinetic initial value code HYM in order to capture the general Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance that drives the modes. Three distinct types of modes are found in simulations -- co-CAEs, cntr-GAEs, and co-GAEs -- with differing spectral and stability properties. The simulations reveal that unstable GAEs are more ubiquitous than unstable CAEs, consistent with experimental observations, as they are excited at lower beam energies and generally have larger growth rates. Local analytic theory is used to explain key features of the simulation results, including the preferential excitation of different modes based on beam injection geometry and the growth rate dependence on the beam injection velocity, critical velocity, and degree of velocity space anisotropy. The background damping rate is inferred from simulations and estimated analytically for relevant sources not present in the simulation model, indicating that co-CAEs are closer to marginal stability than modes driven by the cyclotron resonances.
Monitoring the attention of others is fundamental to social cognition. Most of the literature on the topic assumes that our social cognitive machinery is tuned specifically to the gaze direction of others as a proxy for attention. This standard assumption reduces attention to an externally visible parameter. Here we show that this assumption is wrong and a deeper, more meaningful representation is involved. We presented subjects with two cues about the attentional state of a face: direction of gaze and emotional expression. We tested whether people relied predominantly on one cue, the other, or both. If the traditional view is correct, then the gaze cue should dominate. Instead, people employed a variety of strategies, some relying on gaze, some on expression, and some on an integration of cues. We also assessed people’s social cognitive ability using two, independent, standard tests. If the traditional view is correct, then social cognitive ability, as assessed by the independent tests, should correlate with the degree to which people successfully use the gaze cue to judge the attention state of the face. Instead, social cognitive ability correlated best with the degree to which people successfully integrated the cues together, instead of with the use of any one specific cue. The results suggest a rethink of a fundamental component of social cognition: monitoring the attention of others involves constructing a deep model that is informed by a combination of cues. Attention is a rich process and monitoring the attention of others involves a similarly rich representation.
Large edge-localized modes (ELMs) were mitigated by gravitational injection of lithium granules into the upper X-point region of the EAST device with tungsten plasma-facing components. The maximum ELM size was reduced by ~ 70% in high βN H-mode plasmas. Large ELM stabilization was sustained for up to about 40 energy confinement times, with constant core radiated power and no evidence of high-Z or low-Z impurity accumulation. The lithium granules injection reduced the edge plasma pedestal density and temperature and their gradients, due to increased edge radiation and reduced recycling from the plasma-facing components. Ideal stability calculations using the ELITE code indicate that the stabilization of large ELMs correlates with improved stability of intermediate-n peeling-ballooning modes, due to reduced edge current resulting from the profile changes. The pedestal pressure reduction was partially offset by a core density increase, which resulted in a modest ~ 7% drop in core stored energy and normalized energy confinement time. We surmise that the remnant small ELMs are triggered by the penetration of multiple Li granules just past the separatrix, similar to small ELMs triggered by deuterium pellet [S. Futatani et al., Nucl. Fusion 54 (2014) 073008]. This study extends previous ELM elimination with Li powder injection [R. Maingi et al., Nucl. Fusion 58 (2018) 024003] in EAST because 1) use of small, dust-like powder and the related potential health hazards were eliminated, and 2) use of macroscopic granules should be more applicable to future devices, due to deeper penetration than dust particles, e.g. inside the separatrix with velocities ~ 10 m/s in EAST.
Bourrianne, Philippe; Chidzik, Stanley; Cohen, Daniel; Elmer, Peter; Hallowell, Thomas; Kilbaugh, Todd J.; Lange, David; Leifer, Andrew M.; Marlow, Daniel R.; Meyers, Peter D.; Normand, Edna; Nunes, Janine; Oh, Myungchul; Page, Lyman; Periera, Talmo; Pivarski, Jim; Schreiner, Henry; Stone, Howard A.; Tank, David W.; Thiberge, Stephan; Tully, Christopher
The detailed information on the design and construction of the Princeton Open Ventilation Monitor device and software are contained in this data repository. This information consists of the electrical design files, mechanical design files, bill of materials, human subject recording and analysis code, and a copy of the code repository for operating the patient monitors and central station.
A new model for prediction of electron density and pressure profile shapes on NSTX and NSTX-U has been developed using neural networks. The model has been trained and tested on measured profiles from experimental discharges during the first operational campaign of NSTX-U. By projecting profiles onto empirically derived basis functions, the model is able to efficiently and accurately reproduce profile shapes. In order to project the performance of the model to upcoming NSTX-U operations, a large database of profiles from the operation of NSTX is used to test performance as a function of available data. The rapid execution time of the model is well suited to the planned applications, including optimization during scenario development activities, and real-time plasma control. A potential application of the model to real-time profile estimation is demonstrated.