Particle distribution functions evolving under the Lorentz operator can be simulated with the Langevin equation for pitch angle scattering. This approach is frequently used in particle based Monte-Carlo simulations of plasma collisions, among others. However, most numerical treatments do not guarantee energy conservation, which may lead to unphysical artifacts such as numerical heating and spectra distortions. We present a novel structure-preserving numerical algorithm for the Langevin equation for pitch angle scattering. Similar to the well-known Boris algorithm, the proposed numerical scheme takes advantage of the structure-preserving properties of the Cayley transform when calculating the velocity-space rotations. The resulting algorithm is explicitly solvable, while preserving the norm of velocities down to machine precision. We demonstrate that the method has the same order of numerical convergence as the traditional stochastic Euler-Maruyama method.
Explosive volcanic eruptions have large climate impacts, and can serve as observable tests of the climatic response to radiative forcing. Using a high resolution climate model, we contrast the climate responses to Pinatubo, with symmetric forcing, and those to Santa Maria and Agung, which had meridionally asymmetric forcing. Although Pinatubo had larger global-mean forcing, asymmetric forcing strongly shifts the latitude of tropical rainfall features, leading to larger local precipitation/TC changes. For example, North Atlantic TC activity over is enhanced/reduced by SH-forcing (Agung)/NH-forcing (Santa Maria), but changes little in response to the Pinatubo forcing. Moreover, the transient climate sensitivity estimated from the response to Santa Maria is 20% larger than that from Pinatubo or Agung. This spread in climatic impacts of volcanoes needs to be considered when evaluating the role of volcanoes in global and regional climate, and serves to contextualize the well-observed response to Pinatubo.
Khanna, Jaya; Medvigy, David; Fueglistaler, Stephan; Walko, Robert
More than 20% Amazon rainforest has been cleared in the past three decades triggering important hydroclimatic changes. Small-scale (~few kilometers) deforestation in the 1980s has caused thermally-triggered atmospheric circulations that increase regional cloudiness and precipitation frequency. However, these circulations are predicted to diminish as deforestation increases. Here we use multi-decadal satellite records and numerical model simulations to show a regime shift in the regional hydroclimate accompanying increasing deforestation in Rondônia, Brazil. Compared to the 1980s, present-day deforested areas in downwind western Rondônia are found to be wetter than upwind eastern deforested areas during the local dry season. The resultant precipitation change in the two regions is approximately ±25% of the deforested area mean. Meso-resolution simulations robustly reproduce this transition when forced with increasing deforestation alone, showing a negligible role of large-scale climate variability. Furthermore, deforestation-induced surface roughness reduction is found to play an essential role in the present-day dry season hydroclimate. Our study illustrates the strong scale-sensitivity of the climatic response to Amazonian deforestation and suggests that deforestation is sufficiently advanced to have caused a shift from a thermally- to a dynamically-driven hydroclimatic regime.
Li, Zhongshu; Gallagher, Kevin P.; Mauzerall, Denise L.
The dataset include a list of power projects outside of China that receive Chinese foreign direct investment from 2000 to 2018. Detailed information including project capacity, location, share of Chinese ownership, type of power generating technologies are collected for each power project.
Muniz, Maria Carolina; Gartner III, Thomas E.; Riera, Marc; Knight, Christopher; Yue, Shuwen; Paesani, Francesco; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.
This dataset contains all data (including input files, simulation trajectories as well as other data files and analysis scripts) related to the publication "Vapor-liquid equilibrium of water with the MB-pol many-body potential" by Muniz et al. in preparation (2021). In this work, we assessed the performance of the MB-pol many-body potential with respect to water's vapor-liquid equilibrium properties. Through the use of direct coexistence molecular dynamics, we calculated properties such as coexistence densities, surface tension, vapor pressures and enthalpy of vaporization. We found that MB-pol is able to predict these properties in good agreement with experimental data. The results attest to the chemical accuracy of MB-pol and its large range of application across water's phase diagram.
This dataset contains all data relevant to a forthcoming publication in which we used molecular simulation methods to study the phase behavior of supercooled water. The dataset contains simulation input and output files, processed data files, and image files used to create all plots in the manuscript. Python analysis scripts are also included, including instructions for how to re-generate all plots in the manuscript.