Monitoring the attention of others is fundamental to social cognition. Most of the literature on the topic assumes that our social cognitive machinery is tuned specifically to the gaze direction of others as a proxy for attention. This standard assumption reduces attention to an externally visible parameter. Here we show that this assumption is wrong and a deeper, more meaningful representation is involved. We presented subjects with two cues about the attentional state of a face: direction of gaze and emotional expression. We tested whether people relied predominantly on one cue, the other, or both. If the traditional view is correct, then the gaze cue should dominate. Instead, people employed a variety of strategies, some relying on gaze, some on expression, and some on an integration of cues. We also assessed people’s social cognitive ability using two, independent, standard tests. If the traditional view is correct, then social cognitive ability, as assessed by the independent tests, should correlate with the degree to which people successfully use the gaze cue to judge the attention state of the face. Instead, social cognitive ability correlated best with the degree to which people successfully integrated the cues together, instead of with the use of any one specific cue. The results suggest a rethink of a fundamental component of social cognition: monitoring the attention of others involves constructing a deep model that is informed by a combination of cues. Attention is a rich process and monitoring the attention of others involves a similarly rich representation.
Bourrianne, Philippe; Chidzik, Stanley; Cohen, Daniel; Elmer, Peter; Hallowell, Thomas; Kilbaugh, Todd J.; Lange, David; Leifer, Andrew M.; Marlow, Daniel R.; Meyers, Peter D.; Normand, Edna; Nunes, Janine; Oh, Myungchul; Page, Lyman; Periera, Talmo; Pivarski, Jim; Schreiner, Henry; Stone, Howard A.; Tank, David W.; Thiberge, Stephan; Tully, Christopher
The detailed information on the design and construction of the Princeton Open Ventilation Monitor device and software are contained in this data repository. This information consists of the electrical design files, mechanical design files, bill of materials, human subject recording and analysis code, and a copy of the code repository for operating the patient monitors and central station.
A new model for prediction of electron density and pressure profile shapes on NSTX and NSTX-U has been developed using neural networks. The model has been trained and tested on measured profiles from experimental discharges during the first operational campaign of NSTX-U. By projecting profiles onto empirically derived basis functions, the model is able to efficiently and accurately reproduce profile shapes. In order to project the performance of the model to upcoming NSTX-U operations, a large database of profiles from the operation of NSTX is used to test performance as a function of available data. The rapid execution time of the model is well suited to the planned applications, including optimization during scenario development activities, and real-time plasma control. A potential application of the model to real-time profile estimation is demonstrated.
Brunner, Claudia E.; Kiefer, Janik; Hansen, Martin O. L.; Hultmark, Marcus
Reynolds number effects on the aerodynamics of the moderately thick NACA 0021 airfoil were experimentally studied by means of surface-pressure measurements. The use of a high-pressure wind tunnel allowed for variation of the chord Reynolds number over a range of 5.0 × 10^5 ≤ Re_c ≤ 7.9 × 10^6. The angle of attack was incrementally increased and decreased over a range of 0° ≤ alpha ≤ 40°, spanning both the attached and stalled regime at all Reynolds numbers. As such, attached and separated conditions, as well as the static stall and reattachment processes were studied. A fundamental change in the flow behaviour was observed around Re_c= 2.0 × 10^6. As the Reynolds number was increased beyond this value, the stall type gradually shifted from trailing-edge stall to leading-edge stall. The stall angle and the maximum lift coefficient increased with Reynolds number. Once the flow was separated, the separation point moved upstream and the suction peak decreased in magnitude with increasing Reynolds number. Two distinct types of hysteresis in reattachment were observed.
Chang, Claire H. C.; Lazaridi, Christina; Yeshurun, Yaara; Norman, Kenneth A.; Hasson, Uri
This study examined how the brain dynamically updates event representations by integrating new information over multiple minutes while segregating irrelevant input. A professional writer custom-designed a narrative with two independent storylines, interleaving across minute-long segments (ABAB). In the last (C) part, characters from the two storylines meet and their shared history is revealed. Part C is designed to induce the spontaneous recall of past events, upon the recurrence of narrative motifs from A/B, and to shed new light on them. Our fMRI results showed storyline-specific neural patterns, which were reinstated (i.e. became more active) during storyline transitions. This effect increased along the processing timescale hierarchy, peaking in the default mode network. Similarly, the neural reinstatement of motifs was found during part C. Furthermore, participants showing stronger motif reinstatement performed better in integrating A/B and C events, demonstrating the role of memory reactivation in information integration over intervening irrelevant events.
Chen, Xu; Li, Zhongshu; Gallagher, Kevin P.; Mauzerall, Denise L.
Power sector decarbonization requires a fundamental redirection of global finance from fossil fuel infrastructure towards low carbon technologies. Bilateral finance plays an important role in the global energy transition to non-fossil energy, but an understanding of its impact is limited. Here, for the first time, we compare the influence of overseas finance from the three largest economies – United States, China, and Japan – on power generation development beyond their borders and evaluate the associated long-term CO2 emissions. We construct a new dataset of Japanese and U.S. overseas power generation finance between 2000-2018 by analyzing their national development finance institutions’ press releases and annual reports and tracking their foreign direct investment at the power plant level. Synthesizing this new data with previously developed datasets for China, we find that the three countries’ overseas financing concentrated in fossil fuel power technologies over the studied period. Financing commitments from China, Japan, and the United States facilitated 101 GW, 95 GW, and 47 GW overseas power capacity additions, respectively. The majority of facilitated capacity additions are fossil fuel plants (64% for China, 87% for Japan, and 66% for the United States). Each of the countries’ contributions to non-hydro renewable generation was less than 15% of their facilitated capacity additions. Together, we estimate that overseas fossil fuel power financing through 2018 from these three countries will lock in 24 Gt CO2 emissions by 2060. If climate targets are to be met, replacing bilateral fossil fuel financing with financing of renewable technologies is crucial.
Here we publish the data used in paper "Junming Huang, Gavin Cook, and Yu Xie, Large-scale Quantitative Evidence of Media Impact on Public Opinion toward China". This dataset include estimated sentiments on The New York Times on China in eight topics from 1970 to 2019, and a time series of public attitude aggregated from surveys on China.
Petsev, Nikolai D.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.
Source code for our energy-conserving reformulation of the 4-site molecular model for chiral phenomena originally introduced by Latinwo et al. [F. Latinwo, F. H. Stillinger, and P. G. Debenedetti, Molecular Model for Chirality Phenomena, J. Chem. Phys. 145, 154503 (2016)]. The reformulation includes an additional 8-body force that arises from an explicit configuration-dependent term in the potential energy function, resulting in a coarse-grained energy-conserving force field for molecular dynamics simulations of chirality phenomena. In this model, the coarse-grained interaction energy between two tetramers depends on their respective chiralities, and is controlled by a parameter λ, where favors local configurations involving tetramers of opposite chirality, and gives energetic preference to configurations involving tetramers of the same chirality. The source code is for use with the LAMMPS simulation package.
Lampert,Mate; Diallo,Ahmed; Myra,James R.; Zweben, Stewart J.
Edge localized modes (ELMs) are routinely observed in H-mode plasma regimes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Due to the explosive nature of the instability, only diagnostics with high temporal and spatial resolution could provide a detailed insight into the dynamics associated with the ELMs. Gas-puff imaging (GPI) at NSTX provides 2D measurements of the magnetic field aligned fluctuations (e.g. ELM filaments) in the scrape-off layer and the at the plasma edge with 2.5 us temporal and 10 mm optical resolution.A novel analysis technique was developed to estimate the frame-by-frame velocities and the spatial parameters of the dominant structures associated with the ELMs. The analysis was applied to single ELM events to characterize the ELM crash dynamics, and then extended to a database of 169 ELM events.Statistical analysis was performed in order to find the characterizing dynamics of the ELM crash. The results show that on average an ELM crash consists of a filament with a circular cross-section which is propelled outwards with a characterizing peak radial velocity of ~3.3 km/s. The radial velocity was found to be linearly dependent on the distance of the filament from the separatrix, which has never been seen before. The ELM filament is characterized by propagation in the ion-diamagnetic direction poloidally with a peak velocity of 11.4 km/s. The ELM crash lasts for approximately 100us until the radial propulsion settles back to the pre-ELM level. The experimental findings were compared with analytical theory. Two possible mechanisms were identified for explaining the observations: the curvature interchange model and the current-filament interaction model.