Basic physics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows has long been studied within the framework of wave-kinetic theory. Recently, this framework has been re-examined from first principles, which has led to more accurate yet still tractable "improved" wave-kinetic equations. In particular, these equations reveal an important effect of the zonal-flow "curvature" (the second radial derivative of the flow velocity) on dynamics and stability of drift waves and zonal flows. We overview these recent findings and present a consolidated high-level picture of (mostly quasilinear) zonal-flow physics within reduced models of drift-wave turbulence.
The engineering limits of plasma facing components (PFCs) constrain the allowable operational space of tokamaks. Poorly managed heat fluxes that push the PFCs beyond their limits not only degrade core plasma performance via elevated impurities, but can also result in PFC failure due to thermal stresses or melting. Simple axisymmetric assumptions fail to capture the complex interaction between 3D PFC geometry and 2D or 3D plasmas. This results in fusion systems that must either operate with increased risk or reduce PFC loads, potentially through lower core plasma performance, to maintain a nominal safety factor. High precision 3D heat flux predictions are necessary to accurately ascertain the state of a PFC given the evolution of the magnetic equilibrium. A new code, the Heat flux Engineering Analysis Toolkit (HEAT), has been developed to provide high precision 3D predictions and analysis for PFCs. HEAT couples many otherwise disparate computational tools together into a single open source python package. Magnetic equilibrium, engineering CAD, finite volume solvers, scrape off layer plasma physics, visualization, high performace computing, and more, are connected in a single web-based user interface. Linux users may use HEAT without any software prerequisites via an appImage. This manuscript introduces HEAT, discusses the software architecture, presents first HEAT results, and outlines physics modules in development.
The dielectric function for "Astrodust" grain material is provided for different assumed values of the dust grain shape (spheroid axis ratio) and porosity (vacuum fraction), and fraction of the interstellar iron present as metallic inclusions. For each case, the dielectric function is obtained by requiring that the grains reproduce the observed infrared opacity, and match to a physically reasonable dielectric function at 1 micron, and extending to X-ray energies. The derived dielectric functions satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relations. Dielectric functions are provided from 1 Angstrom to 5 cm (12.4 keV to 2.59e-5 eV).
For each dielectric function, we also calculate absorption and scattering corss sections for spheroidal grains, for three orientations of the grain relative to incident linearly-polarized light, for wavelengths from the Lyman limit (0.0912 micron) to the microwave (4 cm), and grain "effective radii" a_eff from 3.162A to 5.012 micron.
The history of organismal evolution, seawater chemistry, and paleoclimate is recorded in layers of carbonate sedimentary rock. Meter-scale cyclic stacking patterns in these carbonates often are interpreted as representing sea level change. A reliable sedimentary proxy for eustasy would be profoundly useful for reconstructing paleoclimate, since sea level responds to changes in temperature and ice volume. However, the translation from water depth to carbonate layering has proven difficult, with recent surveys of modern shallow water platforms revealing little correlation between carbonate facies (i.e., grain size, sedimentary bed forms, ecology) and water depth. We train a convolutional neural network with satellite imagery and new field observations from a 3,000 km2 region northwest of Andros Island (Bahamas) to generate a facies map with 5 m resolution. Leveraging a newly-published bathymetry for the same region, we test the hypothesis that one can extract a signal of water depth change, not simply from individual facies, but from sequences of facies transitions analogous to vertically stacked carbonate strata. Our Hidden Markov Model (HMM) can distinguish relative sea level fall from random variability with ∼90% accuracy. Finally, since shallowing-upward patterns can result from local (autogenic) processes in addition to forced mechanisms such as eustasy, we search for statistical tools to diagnose the presence or absence of external forcings on relative sea level. With a new data-driven forward model that simulates how modern facies mosaics evolve to stack strata, we show how different sea level forcings generate characteristic patterns of cycle thicknesses in shallow carbonates, providing a new tool for quantitative reconstruction of ancient sea level conditions from the geologic record.
These data include 39 structured interview transcripts. Each case is someone who worked at the time for Uber, UberEats, Lyft, and/or Amazon Flex (Amazon’s contractor delivery service). These data were collected between July and September 2019. All but one of the interviews occurred over the phone. My questions are focused on the structure of their gig work jobs and the technology they used at work or expected to use at work in the future. I included a description of the data, the recruitment methods, and the discussion guide in this ReadMe file.
One aspect of the interaction between fast ions and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities is the fast ion transport. Coupled kink and tearing MHD instabilities have also been reported to cause fast ion transport. Recently, the ''kick" model has been developed to compute the evolution of the fast ion distribution from the neutral beam injection using instabilities as phase space resonance sources. The goal of this paper is to utilize the kick model to understand the physics of fast ion transport caused by the coupled kink and tearing modes. Soft X-ray diagnostics are used to identify the mode parameters in NSTX. The comparison of neutron rates measured and computed from time-dependent TRANSP simulation with the kick model shows the coupling of kink and tearing mode is important in determination of the fast ion transport. The numerical scan of the mode parameters shows that the relative phase of the kink and tearing modes and the overlapping of kink and tearing mode resonances in the phase space can affect the fast ion transport, suggesting that the synergy of the coupled modes may be causing the fast ion transpor
Muniz, Maria Carolina; Gartner III, Thomas E.; Riera, Marc; Knight, Christopher; Yue, Shuwen; Paesani, Francesco; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.
This dataset contains all data (including input files, simulation trajectories as well as other data files and analysis scripts) related to the publication "Vapor-liquid equilibrium of water with the MB-pol many-body potential" by Muniz et al. in preparation (2021). In this work, we assessed the performance of the MB-pol many-body potential with respect to water's vapor-liquid equilibrium properties. Through the use of direct coexistence molecular dynamics, we calculated properties such as coexistence densities, surface tension, vapor pressures and enthalpy of vaporization. We found that MB-pol is able to predict these properties in good agreement with experimental data. The results attest to the chemical accuracy of MB-pol and its large range of application across water's phase diagram.
The carbon isotopic (δ13C) composition of shallow-water carbonates often is interpreted to reflect the δ13C of the global ocean and is used as a proxy for changes in the global carbon cycle. However, local platform processes, in addition to meteoric and marine diagenesis, may decouple carbonate δ13C from that of the global ocean. To shed light on the extent to which changing sediment grain composition may produce δ13C shifts in the stratigraphic record, we present new δ13C measurements of benthic foraminifera, solitary corals, calcifying green algae, ooids, coated grains, and lime mud from the modern Great Bahama Bank (GBB). This survey of a modern carbonate environment reveals δ13C variability comparable to the largest δ13C excursions in the last two billion years of Earth history.
The lithium vapor-box divertor is a possible fusion power exhaust solution.It uses condensation pumping to create a gradient of vapor density in a divertor slot; this should allow a stable detachment front without active feedback.As initial explorations of the concept, two test stands which take the form of three connected cylindrical stainless steel boxes are being developed: one without plasma at PPPL, to test models of lithium evaporation and flow; and one for the linear plasma device Magnum-PSI (at DIFFER in Eindhoven, The Netherlands) to test the ability of a lithium vapor cloud to induce volumetric detachment and redistribute the plasma power.The first experiment uses boxes with diameters of 6 cm, joined by apertures with diameters of 2.2 cm. Up to 1 g of Li is placed in one box, which is heated to up to 600 degrees C. The Li evaporates, then flows to and condenses in the two other, cooler boxes over several minutes. The quantity of Li transported is assessed by weighing the boxes before and after the heating cycle, and is compared to the quantity predicted to flow for the box at its measured temperature using a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code, SPARTA. With good experimental conditions, the two values agree to within 15%.The experiment on Magnum-PSI is in the conceptual design stage.The design is assessed by simulations using the code B2.5-Eunomia.They show that when the hydrogen-ion plasma beam, with n_e = 4e20 per cubic meter, T_e = 1.5 eV, and r = 1 cm, is passed through a 16 cm long, 12 Pa, 625 degree C Li vapor cloud, the plasma heat flux and pressure on the target are significantly reduced compared to the case without Li.With the Li present, the plasma is cooled by excitation of Li neutrals followed by radiation until it volumetrically recombines, lowering the heat flux from 3.7 MW/m^2 to 0.13 MW/m^2, and the pressure is reduced by 93%, largely by collisions of hydrogen ions with neutral Li.