Sharma, A. Y.; Cole, M. D. J.; Görler, T.; Chen, Y.; Hatch, D. R.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hager, R.; Sturdevant, B. J.; Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.
Plasma shaping may have a stronger effect on global turbulence in tight-aspect-ratio tokamaks than in conventional-aspect-ratio tokamaks due to the higher toroidicity and more acute poloidal asymmetry in the magnetic field. In addition, previous local gyrokinetic studies have shown that it is necessary to include parallel magnetic field perturbations in order to accurately compute growth rates of electromagnetic modes in tight-aspect-ratio tokamaks. In this work, the effects of elongation and triangularity on global, ion-scale, linear electromagnetic modes are studied at NSTX aspect ratio and high plasma beta using the global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code XGC. The effects of compressional magnetic perturbations are approximated via a well-known modification to the particle drifts that was developed for flux-tube simulations [N. Joiner et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 072104 (2010)], without proof of its validity in a global simulation. Magnetic equilibria are re-constructed for each distinct plasma profile that is used. Coulomb collision effects are not considered. Within the limitations imposed by the present study, it is found that linear growth rates of electromagnetic modes (collisionless microtearing modes and kinetic ballooning modes) are significantly reduced by NSTX-like shaping. For example, growth rates of kinetic ballooning modes at high beta are reduced to the level of that of collisionless trapped electron modes.
Stoltzfus-Dueck, T; Hornsby, W A; Grosshauser, S R
Ion Landau damping interacts with a portion of the E×B drift to cause a non-diffusive outward flux of co-current toroidal angular momentum. Quantitative evaluation of this momentum flux requires nonlinear simulations to determine fL, the fraction of fluctuation free energy that passes through ion Landau damping, in fully developed turbulence. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations with the GKW code confirm the presence of the systematic symmetry-breaking momentum flux. For simulations with adiabatic electrons, fL scales inversely with the ion temperature gradient, because only the ion curvature drift can transfer free energy to the electrostatic potential. Although kinetic electrons should in principle relax this restriction, the ion Landau damping measured in collisionless kinetic-electron simulations remained at low levels comparable with ion-curvature-drift transfer, except when magnetic shear was strong. A set of simulations scanning the electron pitch-angle scattering rate showed only a weak variation of fL with the electron collisionality. However, collisional-electron simulations with electron temperature greater than ion temperature unambiguously showed electron-curvature-drift transfer supporting ion Landau damping, leading to a corresponding enhancement of the symmetry-breaking momentum flux.
Wang, Yin; Gilson, Erik P.; Ebrahimi, Fatima; Goodman, Jeremy; Caspary, Kyle J.; Winarto, Himawan W.; Ji, Hantao
This dataset provides the source data of figures in the main text of the paper "Identification of a non-axisymmetric mode in laboratory experiments searching for standard magnetorotational instability" accepted by Nature Communications.
Using a recently installed impurity powder dropper (IPD), boron powder (< 150 μm) was injected into lower single null (LSN) L-mode discharges in WEST. IPDs possibly enable real-time wall conditioning of the plasma-facing components and may help to facilitate H-mode access in the full-tungsten environment of WEST. The discharges in this experiment featured Ip = 0.5 MA, BT = 3.7 T, q95 = 4.3, tpulse = 12–30 s, ne,0 ~ 4×1019 m-2, and PLHCD ~ 4.5 MW. Estimates of the deuterium and impurity particle fluxes, derived from a combination of visible spectroscopy measurements and their corresponding S/XB coefficients, showed decreases of ~ 50% in O+, N+, and C+ populations during powder injection and a moderate reduction of these low-Z impurities (~ 50%) and W (~ 10%) in the discharges that followed powder injection. Along with the improved wall conditions, WEST discharges with B powder injection observed improved confinement, as the stored energy WMHD, neutron rate, and electron temperature Te increased significantly (10–25% for WMHD and 60–200% for the neutron rate) at constant input power. These increases in confinement scale up with the powder drop rate and are likely due to the suppression of ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence from changes in Zeff and/or modifications to the electron density profile.
The growth of magnetic islands in NSTX is modeled successfully, with the consideration of passing fast ions. It is shown that a good quantitative agreement between simulation and experimental measurement can be achieved when the uncompensated cross-field current induced by passing fast ions is included in the island growth model. The fast ion parameters,
along with other equilibrium parameters, are obtained self-consistently using the TRANSP code with the assumptions of the ‘kick’ model (Podestà et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59 095008). The results show that fast ions can contribute to overcoming the stabilizing effect of polarization current for magnetic island growth.
Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields arising in a tokamak either by external or internal perturbations can induce complex non-ideal MHD responses in their resonant surfaces while remaining ideally evolved elsewhere. This layer response can be characterized in a linear regime by a single parameter called the inner-layer Delta, which enables outer-layer matching and the prediction of torque balance to non-linear island regimes. Here, we follow strictly one of the most comprehensive analytic treatments including two-fluid and drift MHD effects and keep the fidelity of the formulation by incorporating the numerical method based on the Riccati transformation when quantifying the inner-layer Delta. The proposed scheme reproduces not only the predicted responses in essentially all asymptotic regimes but also with continuous transitions as well as improved accuracies. In particular, the Delta variations across the inertial regimes with viscous or semi-collisional effects have been further resolved, in comparison with additional analytic solutions. The results imply greater shielding of the electromagnetic torque at the layer than what would be expected by earlier work when the viscous or semi-collisional effects can compete against the inertial effects, and also due to the intermediate regulation by kinetic Alfven wave resonances as rotation slows down. These are important features that can alter the nonaxisymmetric plasma responses including the field penetration by external fields or island seeding process in rotating tokamak plasmas.