Kim, E.-W.; Bertelli, N.; Johnson, J.R.; Valeo, E.; Hosea, J.; Perkins, R.
We illustrate the capabilities of a recently developed two-dimensional full wave code (FW2D) in space and tokamak plasmas by adopting various values of density, magnetic field configuration and strength as well as boundary shape. As example, we first showed fast compressional wave propagation in the inner magnetosphere is dramatically modified by a plasmaspheric plume at Earth's magnetosphere. The results show that wave energy is trapped in the plume showing a leaky eigenmode-like structure with plume, which is similar to the detected magnetosonic waves. We also performed simulations of high harmonic fast waves in the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasmas of the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX)/NSTX-Upgrade. Comparison the results with previous full-wave simulations show that although the FW2D code uses a cold plasma approximation, the electric field and the fraction of the power losses in the SOL plasmas show excellent consistency and agreement with the previous full wave simulations performed by the AORSA code.
Taylor, Jenny A.; Bratton, Benjamin P.; Sichel, Sophie R.; Blair, Kris M.; Jacobs, Holly M.; DeMeester, Kristen E.; Kuru, Erkin; Gray, Joe; Biboy, Jacob; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Grimes, Catherine L.; Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Salama, Nina R.
Helical cell shape is necessary for efficient stomach colonization by Helicobacter pylori, but the molecular mechanisms for generating helical shape remain unclear. We show that the helical centerline pitch and radius of wild-type H. pylori cells dictate surface curvatures of considerably higher positive and negative Gaussian curvatures than those present in straight- or curved-rod bacteria. Quantitative 3D microscopy analysis of short pulses with either N-acetylmuramic acid or D-alanine metabolic probes showed that cell wall growth is enhanced at both sidewall curvature extremes. Immunofluorescence revealed MreB is most abundant at negative Gaussian curvature, while the bactofilin CcmA is most abundant at positive Gaussian curvature. Strains expressing CcmA variants with altered polymerization properties lose helical shape and associated positive Gaussian curvatures. We thus propose a model where CcmA and MreB promote PG synthesis at positive and negative Gaussian curvatures, respectively, and that this patterning is one mechanism necessary for maintaining helical shape.
Wilterson, Andrew; Nastase, Samuel; Bio, Branden; Guterstam, Arvid; Graziano, Michael
The attention schema theory (AST) posits a specific relationship between subjective awareness and attention, in which awareness is the control model that the brain uses to aid in the endogenous control of attention. We proposed that the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is involved in that interaction between awareness and attention. In previous experiments, we developed a behavioral paradigm in human subjects to manipulate awareness and attention. The paradigm involved a visual cue that could be used to guide a shift of attention to a target stimulus. In task 1, subjects were aware of the visual cue, and their endogenous control mechanism was able to use the cue to help control attention. In task 2, subjects were unaware of the visual cue, and their endogenous control mechanism was no longer able to use it to control attention, even though the cue still had a measurable effect on other aspects of behavior. Here we tested the two tasks while scanning brain activity in human volunteers. We predicted that the right TPJ would be active in relation to the cue in task 1, but not in task 2. This prediction was confirmed. The right TPJ was active in relation to the cue in task 1; it was not measurably active in task 2; the difference was significant. In our interpretation, the right TPJ is involved in a complex interaction in which awareness aids in the control of attention.
Monitoring the attention of others is fundamental to social cognition. Most of the literature on the topic assumes that our social cognitive machinery is tuned specifically to the gaze direction of others as a proxy for attention. This standard assumption reduces attention to an externally visible parameter. Here we show that this assumption is wrong and a deeper, more meaningful representation is involved. We presented subjects with two cues about the attentional state of a face: direction of gaze and emotional expression. We tested whether people relied predominantly on one cue, the other, or both. If the traditional view is correct, then the gaze cue should dominate. Instead, people employed a variety of strategies, some relying on gaze, some on expression, and some on an integration of cues. We also assessed people’s social cognitive ability using two, independent, standard tests. If the traditional view is correct, then social cognitive ability, as assessed by the independent tests, should correlate with the degree to which people successfully use the gaze cue to judge the attention state of the face. Instead, social cognitive ability correlated best with the degree to which people successfully integrated the cues together, instead of with the use of any one specific cue. The results suggest a rethink of a fundamental component of social cognition: monitoring the attention of others involves constructing a deep model that is informed by a combination of cues. Attention is a rich process and monitoring the attention of others involves a similarly rich representation.
Hill, K. W.; Gao, L.; Kraus, B. F.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P. C.; Pablant, N. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Thorn, D. B.; Chen, H.; Kauffman, R. L.; Liedahl, D. A.; MacDonald, M. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Scott, H. A.; Stoupin, S.; Doron, R.; Stambulchik, E.; Maron, Y.; Lahmann, B.
Numerical data used to draw the figures in the manuscript
Using a recently installed impurity powder dropper (IPD), boron powder (< 150 μm) was injected into lower single null (LSN) L-mode discharges in WEST. IPDs possibly enable real-time wall conditioning of the plasma-facing components and may help to facilitate H-mode access in the full-tungsten environment of WEST. The discharges in this experiment featured Ip = 0.5 MA, BT = 3.7 T, q95 = 4.3, tpulse = 12–30 s, ne,0 ~ 4×1019 m-2, and PLHCD ~ 4.5 MW. Estimates of the deuterium and impurity particle fluxes, derived from a combination of visible spectroscopy measurements and their corresponding S/XB coefficients, showed decreases of ~ 50% in O+, N+, and C+ populations during powder injection and a moderate reduction of these low-Z impurities (~ 50%) and W (~ 10%) in the discharges that followed powder injection. Along with the improved wall conditions, WEST discharges with B powder injection observed improved confinement, as the stored energy WMHD, neutron rate, and electron temperature Te increased significantly (10–25% for WMHD and 60–200% for the neutron rate) at constant input power. These increases in confinement scale up with the powder drop rate and are likely due to the suppression of ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence from changes in Zeff and/or modifications to the electron density profile.
Gilson, Erik; Lee, H; Bortolon, A; Choe, W; Diallo, A; Hong, SH; Lee, HM; Maingi, R; Mansfield, DK; Nagy, A; Park, SH; Song, IW; Song, JI; Yun, SW; Nazikian, R
Results from KSTAR powder injection experiments, in which tens of milligrams of boron nitride (BN) were dropped into low-power H-mode plasmas, show an improvement in wall conditions in subsequent discharges and, in some cases, a reduction or elimination of edge-localized modes (ELMs). Injected powder is distributed by the plasma flow and is deposited on the wall and, over the course of several discharges, was observed to gradually reduce recycling by 33%, and decrease both the ELM amplitude and frequency. This is the first demonstration of the use of BN for ELM mitigation. In all of these experiments, an Impurity Powder Dropper (IPD) was used to introduce precise, controllable amounts of the materials into ELMy H-mode KSTAR discharges. The plasma duration was between 10 s and 15 s, 𝐼𝑝 = 500 kA, 𝐵𝑇 = 1.8 T, 𝑃NBI = 1.6 MW, and 𝑃ECH = 0.6 MW. Plasma densities were between 2 and 3 × 1019 m−3. In all cases, the pre-fill and startup gas-fueling was kept constant, suggesting that the decrease in baseline D𝛼 emission is in fact due to a reduction in recycling. The results presented herein highlight the viability of powder injection for intra-shot and between-shot wall conditioning.
Observations on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) indicate
that externally applied non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations (MP) can
reduce the amplitude of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and Global Alfven
Eigenmodes (GAE) in response to pulsed n=3 non-resonant fields. From
full-orbit following Monte Carlo simulations with the 1- and 2-fluid
resistive MHD plasma response to the magnetic perturbation included,
it was found that in response to MP pulses the fast-ion losses increased
and the fast-ion drive for the GAEs was reduced. The MP did not affect
the fast-ion drive for the TAEs significantly but the Alfven continuum
at the plasma edge was found to be altered due to the toroidal symmetry
breaking which leads to coupling of different toroidal harmonics. The
TAE gap was reduced at the edge creating enhanced continuum damping of
the global TAEs, which is consistent with the observations. The results
suggest that optimized non-axisymmetric MP might be exploited to control
and mitigate Alfven instabilities by tailoring the fast-ion distribution
function and/or continuum structure.