The injection of impurity granules into fusion research discharges can serve
as a catalyst for ELM events. For sufficiently low ELM frequencies, and granule
sizes above a threshold, this can result in full control of the ELM cycle,
referred to as ELM pacing. For this research, we extend the investigation
to conditions where the natural ELM frequency is too high for ELM pacing to
be realized. Utilizing multiple sizes of lithium granules and classifying their
effects by granule size, we demonstrate that ELM mitigation through frequency
multiplication can be used at ELM triggering rates that nominally make ELM pacing
unrealizable. We find that above a size threshold, injected granules promptly
trigger ELMs and commensurately enhance the ELM frequency . Below this threshold
size, injection of an individual granule does not always lead to the prompt
triggering of an ELM; however, collective ablation in the edge pedestal region
does enhance the ELM frequency. Specifically, Li granules too small to individually
trigger ELMs were injected into EAST H-mode discharges at frequencies up to 2.3 kHz;
collectively the granules were observed to enhance the natural ELM frequency up to
620 Hz, resulting in a ~2.4x multiplication of the natural ELM frequency and a 50%
decrease of the ELM size.
The ability of an injected lithium granule to promptly trigger an edge localized mode (ELM) has been established in multiple experiments. By horizontally injecting granules ranging in diameter from 200 microns to 1mm in diameter into the low field side of EAST H-mode discharges we have determined that granules with diameter > 600 microns are successful in triggering ELMs more than 95% of the time. It was also demonstrated that below 600 microns the triggering efficiency decreased roughly with granule size. Granules were radially injected from the outer midplane with velocities ~ 80 m/s into EAST upper single null discharges with an ITER like tungsten monoblock divertor. These granules were individually tracked throughout their injection cycle in order to determine their efficacy at triggering an ELM. For those granules of sufficient size, ELM triggering was a prompt response to granule injection. By simulating the granule injection with an experimentally benchmarked neutral gas shielding (NGS) model, the ablatant mass deposition required to promptly trigger an ELM is calculated and the fractional mass deposition is determined.
Carlsson, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.; Greenough, N.; Perkins, R.
Third-order spectral analysis, in particular the auto bicoherence, was applied to probe signals from high-harmonic fast-wave heating experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Strong evidence was found for parametric decay of the 30 MHz radio-frequency (RF) pump wave, with a low-frequency daughter wave at 2.7 MHz, the local majority-ion cyclotron frequency. The primary decay modes have auto bicoherence values around 0.85, very close to the theoretical value of one, which corresponds to total phase coherence with the pump wave. The threshold RF pump power for onset of parametric decay was found to be between 200 kW and 400 kW.
Carlsson, J.; Khrabrov, A.; Kaganovich, I.; Sommerer, T.; Keating, D.
The two particle-in-cell codes EDIPIC and LSP are benchmarked and validated
for a parallel-plate glow discharge in helium, in which the axial electric
field had been carefully measured, primarily to investigate and improve the
fidelity of their collision models. The scattering anisotropy of
electron-impact ionization, as well as the value of the secondary-electron
emission yield, are not well known in this case. The experimental
uncertainty for the emission yield corresponds to a factor of two variation
in the cathode current. If the emission yield is tuned to make the cathode
current computed by each code match the experiment, the computed electric
fields are in excellent agreement with each other, and within about 10% of
the experimental value. The non-monotonic variation of the width of the
cathode fa ll with the applied voltage seen in the experiment is reproduced
by both codes. The electron temperature in the negative glow is within
experimental error bars for both codes, but the density of slow trapped
electrons is underestimated. A more detailed code comparison don e for
several synthetic cases of electron-beam injection into helium gas shows
that the codes are in excellent agreement for ionization rate, as well as
for elastic and excitation collisions with isotropic scattering pattern. The
remaining significant discrepancies between the two codes are due to
differences in their electron binary-collision models, and for anisotropic
scattering due to elastic and excitation collisions.
Caspary, Kyle J.; Choi, Dahan; Ebrahimi, Fatima; Gilson, Erik P.; Goodman, Jeremy; Ji, Hantao
The effects of axial boundary conductivity on the formation and stability of a magnetized free Stewartson-Shercliff layer (SSL) in a short Taylor-Couette device are reported. As the axial field increases with insulating endcaps, hydrodynamic Kelvin-Helmholtz-type instabilities set in at the SSLs of the conducting fluid, resulting in a much reduced flow shear. With conducting endcaps, SSLs respond to an axial field weaker by the square root of the conductivity ratio of endcaps to fluid. Flow shear continuously builds up as the axial field increases despite the local violation of the Rayleigh criterion, leading to a large number of hydrodynamically unstable modes. Numerical simulations of both the mean flow and the instabilities are in agreement with the experimental results.
Wang, Yin; Gilson, Erik P.; Ebrahimi, Fatima; Goodman, Jeremy; Caspary, Kyle J.; Winarto, Himawan W.; Ji, Hantao
This dataset provides the source data of figures in the main text of the paper "Identification of a non-axisymmetric mode in laboratory experiments searching for standard magnetorotational instability" accepted by Nature Communications.
Thin film Faraday cup detectors can provide measurements of fast ion loss from magnetically confined fusion plasmas. These multilayer detectors can resolve the energy distribution of the lost ions in addition to giving the total loss rate. Prior detectors were assembled from discrete foils and insulating sheets. Outlined here is a design methodology for creating detectors using thin film deposition that are suited to particular scientific goals. The intention is to use detectors created by this method on JET and NSTX-U. The detectors will consist of alternating layers of aluminum and silicon dioxide, with layer thicknesses chosen to isolate energies of interest. Thin film deposition offers the advantage of relatively simple and more mechanically robust construction compared to other methods, as well as allowing precise control of film thickness. Furthermore, this depositional fabrication technique places the layers in intimate thermal contact, providing for three-dimensional conduction and dissipation of the ion-produced heating in the layers, rather than the essentially two-dimensional heat conduction in the discrete foil stack implementation.
Stellarators offer a promising path towards fusion reactors, but their design and construction are complicated by stringent tolerance requirements on highly complex 3D coils. A potential way to simplify the engineering requirements for stellarators is to use simple planar toroidal field coils along with permanent magnet arrays to generate shaping fields. In order to ensure sufficient field accuracy while minimizing engineering complexity and system cost, new techniques are required to correct the field produced by the permanent magnet arrays to within requirements set by plasma physics. This work describes a novel correction method developed for this purpose. This analysis is applied to the design of a quasi-axisymmetric stellarator that employs a combination of permanent magnets and planar toroidal field coils to generate its magnetic field. Analysis techniques and initial results using the method for error correction on a proposed permanent magnet stellarator are shown, and it is demonstrated that the method successfully meets the design requirements of the project.
Cole M; Hager R; Moritaka T; Dominski J; Kleiber R; Ku S; Lazerson S; Riemann J; Chang C
XGC (X-point Gyrokinetic Code) is a whole-volume, total-f gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code developed for modelling tokamaks.In recent work, XGC has been extended to model more general 3D toroidal magnetic configurations, such as stellarators.These improvements have resulted in the XGC-S version.In this paper, XGC-S is benchmarked in the reduced delta-f limit for linear electrostatic ion temperature gradient-driven microinstabilities, which can underlie turbulent transport in stellarators.An initial benchmark of XGC-S in tokamak geometry shows good agreement with the XGC1, ORB5, and global GENE codes.A benchmark between XGC-S and the EUTERPE global gyrokinetic code for stellarators has also been performed, this time in geometry of the optimised stellarator Wendelstein 7-X.Good agreement has been found for the mode number spectrum, mode structure, and growth rate.
Zhu, Hongxuan; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T; Hager, R; Ku, S; Chang, C. S.
Ion orbit loss is considered important for generating the radially inward electric field Er in a tokamak edge plasma. In particular, this effect is emphasized in diverted tokamaks with a magnetic X point. In neoclassical equilibria, Coulomb collisions can scatter ions onto loss orbits and generate a radially outward current, which in steady state is balanced by the radially inward current from viscosity. To quantitatively measure this loss-orbit current in an edge pedestal, an ion-orbit-flux diagnostic has been implemented in the axisymmetric version of the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code XGC. As the first application of this diagnostic, a neoclassical DIII-D H-mode plasma is studied using gyrokinetic ions and adiabatic electrons. The validity of the diagnostic is demonstrated by studying the collisional relaxation of Er in the core. After this demonstration, the loss-orbit current is numerically measured in the edge pedestal in quasisteady state. In this plasma, it is found that the radial electric force on ions from Er approximately balances the ion radial pressure gradient in the edge pedestal, with the radial force from the plasma flow term being a minor component. The effect of orbit loss on Er is found to be only mild.