Kiefer, Janik; Brunner, Claudia E.; Hansen, Martin O. L.; Hultmark, Marcus
This data set contains data of a NACA 0021 airfoil as it undergoes upward ramp-type pitching motions at high Reynolds numbers and low Mach numbers. The parametric study covers a wide range of chord Reynolds numbers, reduced frequencies and pitching geometries characterized by varying mean angle and angle amplitude. The data were acquired in the High Reynolds number Test Facility at Princeton University, which is a closed-loop wind tunnel that can be pressurized up to 23 MPa and allowed for variation of the chord Reynolds number over a range of 5.0 × 10^5 ≤ Re_c ≤ 5.5 × 10^6. Data were acquired using 32 pressure taps along the surface of the airfoil. The data are the phase-averaged results of 150 individual half-cycles for any given test case.
Bourrianne, Philippe; Chidzik, Stanley; Cohen, Daniel; Elmer, Peter; Hallowell, Thomas; Kilbaugh, Todd J.; Lange, David; Leifer, Andrew M.; Marlow, Daniel R.; Meyers, Peter D.; Normand, Edna; Nunes, Janine; Oh, Myungchul; Page, Lyman; Periera, Talmo; Pivarski, Jim; Schreiner, Henry; Stone, Howard A.; Tank, David W.; Thiberge, Stephan; Tully, Christopher
The detailed information on the design and construction of the Princeton Open Ventilation Monitor device and software are contained in this data repository. This information consists of the electrical design files, mechanical design files, bill of materials, human subject recording and analysis code, and a copy of the code repository for operating the patient monitors and central station.
Vekselman, V.; Khrabry, A.; Kaganovich, I.; Stratton, B.; Selinsky, R. S.; Raitses, Y.
Delineating the dominant processes responsible for nanomaterial synthesis in a plasma
environment requires measurements of the precursor species contributing to the growth of
nanostructures. We performed comprehensive measurements of spatial and temporal profiles of
carbon dimers in sub-atmospheric-pressure carbon arc by laser-induced fluorescence.
Measured spatial profiles of carbon dimers coincide with the growth region of carbon nanotubes (Fang et al
2016 Carbon 107 273-80) and vary depending on the arc operation mode, which is determined
by the discharge current and the ablation rate of the graphite anode. The carbon dimer density profile
exhibits large spatial and time variations due to motion of the arc core. A comparison of the
experimental data with the 2D simulation results of self-consistent arc modeling shows a good
agreement. The model predicts well the main processes determining spatial profiles of carbon
Myers, Clayton; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Yoo, Jongsoo; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Fox, William
Solar eruptions are often driven by magnetohydrodynamic instabilities such as the torus and kink instabilities that act on line-tied magnetic flux ropes. Recent laboratory experiments designed to study these eruptive instabilities have demonstrated the key role of both dynamic (Myers et al 2015 Nature 528, 526) and quasi-static (Myers et al 2016 Phys. Plasmas, in press) magnetic tension forces in contributing to the equilibrium and stability of line-tied magnetic flux ropes. In this paper, we synthesize these laboratory results and explore the relationship between the dynamic and quasi-static tension forces. While the quasi-static tension force is found to contribute to the flux rope equilibrium in a number of regimes, the dynamic tension force is substantial mostly in the so-called failed torus regime where magnetic self-organization events prevent the flux rope from erupting.
This repository contains the raw photon-by-photon single-molecule FRET (smFRET) trajectories, SAXS data, and MD simulation trajectories, multi-sequence alignment, and gel images for the paper titled "Sub-Domain Dynamics Enables Chemical Chain Reactions in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases."
A reduced semi-empirical model using time-dependent axisymmetric vacuum field calculations is used to develop the prefill and feed-forward coil current targets required for reliable direct induction (DI) startup on the new MA-class spherical tokamaks, MAST-U and NSTX-U. The calculations are constrained by operational limits unique to each device, such as the geometry of the conductive elements and active coils, power supply specifications and coil heating and stress limits. The calculations are also constrained by semi-empirical models for sufficient breakdown, current drive, equilibrium and stability of the plasma developed from a shared database. A large database of DI startup on NSTX and NSTX-U is leveraged to quantify the requirements for achieving a reliable breakdown (Ip ~ 20 kA). It is observed that without pre-ionization, STs access the large E/P regime at modest loop voltage (Vloop) where the electrons in the weakly ionized plasma are continually accelerating along the open field lines. This ensures a rapid (order millisecond) breakdown of the neutral gas, even without pre-ionization or high-quality field nulls. The timescale of the initial increase in Ip on NSTX is reproduced in the reduced model provided a mechanism for impeding the applied electric field is included. Most discharges that fail in the startup phase are due to an inconsistency in the evolution of the plasma current (Ip) and equilibrium field or loss of vertical stability during the burn-through phase. The requirements for the self-consistent evolution of the fields in the weakly and full-ionized plasma states are derived from demonstrated DI startup on NSTX, NSTX-U and MAST. The predictive calculations completed for MAST-U and NSTX-U illustrate that the maximum Ip ramp rate (dIp/dt) in the early startup phase is limited by the voltage limits on the poloidal field coils on MAST-U and passive vertical stability on NSTX-U.
Amazonian deforestation causes systematic changes in regional dry season precipitation. Some of these changes at contemporary large scales (a few hundreds of kilometers) of deforestation have been associated with a ‘dynamical mesoscale circulation’, induced by the replacement of rough forest with smooth pasture. In terms of decadal averages, this dynamical mechanism yields increased precipitation in downwind regions and decreased precipitation in upwind regions of deforested areas. Daily, seasonal, and interannual variations in this phenomenon may exist, but have not yet been identified or explained. This study uses observations and numerical simulations to develop relationships between the dynamical mechanism and the local- and continental-scale atmospheric conditions across a range of time scales. It is found that the strength of the dynamical mechanism is primarily controlled by the regional-scale thermal and dynamical conditions of the boundary layer, and not by the continental- and global-scale atmospheric state. Lifting condensation level and wind speed within the boundary layer have large and positive correlations with the strength of the dynamical mechanism. The strength of these relationships depends on time scale and is strongest over the seasonal cycle. Overall, the dynamical mechanism is found to be strongest during times when the atmosphere is relatively stable. Hence, for contemporary large scales of deforestation this phenomenon is found to be the prevalent convective triggering mechanism during the dry and parts of transition seasons (especially during the dry-to-wet transition), significantly affecting the hydroclimate during this period.
Ant colonies regulate activity in response to changing conditions without using centralized control. Harvester ant colonies forage in the desert for seeds, and their regulation of foraging manages a tradeoff between spending and obtaining water. Foragers lose water while outside in the dry air, but the colony obtains water by metabolizing the fats in the seeds they eat. Previous work shows that the rate at which an outgoing forager leaves the nest depends on its recent experience of brief antennal contact with returning foragers that carry a seed. We examine how this process can yield foraging rates that are robust to uncertainty and responsive to temperature and humidity across minutes to hour-long timescales. To explore possible mechanisms, we develop a low-dimensional analytical model with a small number of parameters that captures observed foraging behavior. The model uses excitability dynamics to represent response to interactions inside the nest and a random delay distribution to represent foraging time outside the nest. We show how feedback of outgoing foragers returning to the nest stabilizes the incoming and outgoing foraging rates to a common value determined by the ``volatility’’ of available foragers. The model exhibits a critical volatility above which there is sustained foraging at a constant rate and below which there is cessation of foraging. To explain how the foraging rates of colonies adjust to temperature and humidity, we propose a mechanism that relies on foragers modifying their volatility after they leave the nest and get exposed to the environment. Our study highlights the importance of feedback in the regulation of foraging activity and points to modulation of volatility as a key to explaining differences in foraging activity in response to conditions and across colonies. Our results present opportunities for generalization to other contexts and systems with excitability and feedback across multiple timescales.
We measure the coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (CRBS) signal integral as a function of the recorded gas pressure in He, Co2, SF6, and air, and we confirm the already established quadratic dependence of the signal on the gas density. We propose the use of CRBS as an effective diagnostic for the remote measurement of gas’ density (pressure) and temperature, as well as polarizability, for gases of known composition.