Griffies, Stephen M; Beadling, Rebecca L; Krasting, John P; Hurlin, William J
This output was produced in coordination with the Southern Ocean Freshwater release model experiments Initiative (SOFIA) and is the Tier 1 experiment where freshwater is delivered in a spatially and temporally uniform pattern at the surface of the ocean at sea surface temperature in a 1-degree latitude band extending from Antarctica’s coastline. The total additional freshwater flux imposed as a monthly freshwater flux entering the ocean is 0.1 Sv. Users are referred to the methods section of Beadling et al. (2022) for additional details on the meltwater implementation in CM4 and ESM4. The datasets in this collection contain model output from the coupled global climate model, CM4, and Earth System Model, ESM4, both developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The ocean_monthly_z and ocean_annual_z output are provided as z depth levels in meters as opposed to the models native hybrid vertical ocean coordinate which consists of z* (quasi-geopotential) coordinates in the upper ocean through the mixed layer, transitioning to isopycnal (referenced to 2000 dbar) in the ocean interior. Please see README for further details.
Kraus, B. Frances; Gao, Lan; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P. C.; Hollinger, R.; Wang, Shoujun; Song, Huanyu; Nedbailo, R.; Rocca, J. J.; Mancini, R. C.; MacDonald, M. J.; Beatty, C. B.; Shepherd, R.
A high-resolution x-ray spectrometer was coupled with an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to produce time-resolved line shape spectra measured from hot, solid-density plasmas. A Bragg crystal was placed near a laser-produced plasma to maximize throughput; alignment tolerances were established by raytracing. The streak camera produced single-shot time-resolved spectra, heavily sloped due to photon time-of-flight differences, with sufficient reproducibility to accumulate photon statistics. The images are time-calibrated by the slope of streaked spectra and dewarped to generate spectra emitted at different times defined at the source. The streaked spectra demonstrate the evolution of spectral shoulders and other features on ps timescales, showing the feasibility of plasma parameter measurements on the rapid timescales necessary to study high-energy-density plasmas.
Yang, Yuan; Pan, Ming; Beck, Hylke; Fisher, Colby; Beighley, R. Edward; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Hong, Yang; Wood, Eric
Conventional basin-by-basin approaches to calibrate hydrologic models are limited to gauged basins and typically result in spatially discontinuous parameter fields. Moreover, the consequent low calibration density in space falls seriously behind the need from present-day applications like high resolution river hydrodynamic modeling. In this study we calibrated three key parameters of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model at every 1/8° grid-cell using machine learning-based maps of four streamflow characteristics for the conterminous United States (CONUS), with a total of 52,663 grid-cells. This new calibration approach, as an alternative to parameter regionalization, applied to ungauged regions too. A key difference made here is that we tried to regionalize physical variables (streamflow characteristics) instead of model parameters whose behavior may often be less well understood. The resulting parameter fields no longer presented any spatial discontinuities and the patterns corresponded well with climate characteristics, such as aridity and runoff ratio. The calibrated parameters were evaluated against observed streamflow from 704/648 (calibration/validation period) small-to-medium-sized catchments used to derive the streamflow characteristics, 3941/3809 (calibration/validation period) small-to-medium-sized catchments not used to derive the streamflow characteristics) as well as five large basins. Comparisons indicated marked improvements in bias and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Model performance was still poor in arid and semiarid regions, which is mostly due to both model structural and forcing deficiencies. Although the performance gain was limited by the relative small number of parameters to calibrate, the study and results here served as a proof-of-concept for a new promising approach for fine-scale hydrologic model calibrations.