Complete dataset of pore water chemical parameters measured at the Marsh Resource Meadowlands Mitigation Bank, a tidal marsh within the New Jersey Meadowlands, from March 2011 to April 2012. Analytes measured include dissolved methane, sulfate, dissolved organic carbon, temperature, salinity, and pH. Measurements were conducted using porewater dialysis samplers, and water was sampled from the surface to a depth of 60 cm.
Martin, Nicholas R; Blackman, Edith; Bratton, Benjamin P; Chase, Katelyn J; Bartlett, Thomas M; Gitai, Zemer
Bacterial species have diverse cell shapes that enable motility, colonization, and virulence. The cell wall defines bacterial shape and is primarily built by two cytoskeleton-guided synthesis machines, the elongasome and the divisome. However, the mechanisms producing complex shapes, like the curved-rod shape of Vibrio cholerae, are incompletely defined. Previous studies have reported that species-specific regulation of cytoskeleton-guided machines enables formation of complex bacterial shapes such as cell curvature and cellular appendages. In contrast, we report that CrvA and CrvB are sufficient to induce complex cell shape autonomously of the cytoskeleton in V. cholerae. The autonomy of the CrvAB module also enables it to induce curvature in the Gram-negative species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Caulobacter crescentus, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Using inducible gene expression, quantitative microscopy, and biochemistry we show that CrvA and CrvB circumvent the need for patterning via cytoskeletal elements by regulating each other to form an asymmetrically-localized, periplasmic structure that directly binds to the cell wall. The assembly and disassembly of this periplasmic structure enables dynamic changes in cell shape. Bioinformatics indicate that CrvA and CrvB may have diverged from a single ancestral hybrid protein. Using fusion experiments in V. cholerae, we find that a synthetic CrvA/B hybrid protein is sufficient to induce curvature on its own, but that expression of two distinct proteins, CrvA and CrvB, promotes more rapid curvature induction. We conclude that morphological complexity can arise independently of cell shape specification by the core cytoskeleton-guided synthesis machines.
Data from the 2007 Developmental Idealism survey conducted in Gansu province in China's northwestern borderlands reveal that Muslims of the Hui and Dongxiang ethnicities reported much higher rates of cohabitation experience than the secular majority Han. Based on follow-up qualitative interviews, we found the answer to lie in the interplay between the highly interventionist Chinese state and the robust cultural resilience of local Islamic communities. Using the 2000 census data and the 2010 China Family Panel Studies data, we further show that women in almost all ten Muslim ethnic groups have higher percentages of underage births and premarital births than Han women, both nationally and in the northwest where most Chinese Muslims live. As the once-outlawed behavior of cohabitation became more socially acceptable during the reform and opening-up era, young Muslim Chinese often found themselves in “arranged cohabitations” as de facto marriages formed at younger-than-legal ages.
Physical and biogeochemical variables from the NOAA-GFDL Earth System Model 2M experiments (pre-processed), previously published observation-based datasets, and code to reproduce figures from these datasets, used for the study 'Hydrological cycle amplification reshapes warming-driven oxygen loss in Atlantic Ocean'.
Microscopy images are part of a paper entitled "Structured foraging of soil predators unveils functional responses to bacterial defenses" by Fernando Rossine, Gabriel Vercelli, Corina Tarnita, and Thomas Gregor. For detailed acquisition methods see the paper. Experiments were performed between 2019 and 2020 at Princeton University. Two types of images are provided, macroscopic and microscopic widefiled Images. Macroscopic images all show Petri dishes covered in fluorescent bacteria being consumed by amoebae. Images are shown for D. discoideum, P. violaceum, and A. castellanii. Images depicting drug treatments (Nystatin and Fluorouracil) were obtained using D. discoideum. Images used for the creation of a profile were all taken within 30 minutes of each other. Within each directory numbered images are independent replicates. The raw video directory contains time series for dishes under drug treatments. Each numbered folder is a sequence of photos (taken 30 minutes apart of each other) of a single dish. Microscopic images all show amoebae consuming bacteria on a petri dish. The 45 minute videos show either edge cells (located at the edge of amoebae colonies), or inner cells (located 2.5 millimeters towards the center of the colony, from the edge). Videos are confocal stacks, with bacteria showing in green and amoebae appearing as black holes within the bacterial lawn. As was for the macroscopic images, images are shown for D. discoideum, P. violaceum, and A. castellanii. Images depicting drug treatments (Nystatin and Fluorouracil) were obtained using D. discoideum.
Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Amchin, Daniel; Alert, Ricard; Ott, Jenna; Datta, Sujit
Collective migration -- the directed, coordinated motion of many self-propelled agents -- is a fascinating emergent behavior exhibited by active matter that has key functional implications for biological systems. Extensive studies have elucidated the different ways in which this phenomenon may arise. Nevertheless, how collective migration can persist when a population is confronted with perturbations, which inevitably arise in complex settings, is poorly understood. Here, by combining experiments and simulations, we describe a mechanism by which collectively migrating populations smooth out large-scale perturbations in their overall morphology, enabling their constituents to continue to migrate together. We focus on the canonical example of chemotactic migration of Escherichia coli, in which fronts of cells move via directed motion, or chemotaxis, in response to a self-generated nutrient gradient. We identify two distinct modes in which chemotaxis influences the morphology of the population: cells in different locations along a front migrate at different velocities due to spatial variations in (i) the local nutrient gradient and in (ii) the ability of cells to sense and respond to the local nutrient gradient. While the first mode is destabilizing, the second mode is stabilizing and dominates, ultimately driving smoothing of the overall population and enabling continued collective migration. This process is autonomous, arising without any external intervention; instead, it is a population-scale consequence of the manner in which individual cells transduce external signals. Our findings thus provide insights to predict, and potentially control, the collective migration and morphology of cell populations and diverse other forms of active matter.