Taylor, Jenny A.; Bratton, Benjamin P.; Sichel, Sophie R.; Blair, Kris M.; Jacobs, Holly M.; DeMeester, Kristen E.; Kuru, Erkin; Gray, Joe; Biboy, Jacob; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Grimes, Catherine L.; Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Salama, Nina R.
Helical cell shape is necessary for efficient stomach colonization by Helicobacter pylori, but the molecular mechanisms for generating helical shape remain unclear. We show that the helical centerline pitch and radius of wild-type H. pylori cells dictate surface curvatures of considerably higher positive and negative Gaussian curvatures than those present in straight- or curved-rod bacteria. Quantitative 3D microscopy analysis of short pulses with either N-acetylmuramic acid or D-alanine metabolic probes showed that cell wall growth is enhanced at both sidewall curvature extremes. Immunofluorescence revealed MreB is most abundant at negative Gaussian curvature, while the bactofilin CcmA is most abundant at positive Gaussian curvature. Strains expressing CcmA variants with altered polymerization properties lose helical shape and associated positive Gaussian curvatures. We thus propose a model where CcmA and MreB promote PG synthesis at positive and negative Gaussian curvatures, respectively, and that this patterning is one mechanism necessary for maintaining helical shape.
Monitoring the attention of others is fundamental to social cognition. Most of the literature on the topic assumes that our social cognitive machinery is tuned specifically to the gaze direction of others as a proxy for attention. This standard assumption reduces attention to an externally visible parameter. Here we show that this assumption is wrong and a deeper, more meaningful representation is involved. We presented subjects with two cues about the attentional state of a face: direction of gaze and emotional expression. We tested whether people relied predominantly on one cue, the other, or both. If the traditional view is correct, then the gaze cue should dominate. Instead, people employed a variety of strategies, some relying on gaze, some on expression, and some on an integration of cues. We also assessed people’s social cognitive ability using two, independent, standard tests. If the traditional view is correct, then social cognitive ability, as assessed by the independent tests, should correlate with the degree to which people successfully use the gaze cue to judge the attention state of the face. Instead, social cognitive ability correlated best with the degree to which people successfully integrated the cues together, instead of with the use of any one specific cue. The results suggest a rethink of a fundamental component of social cognition: monitoring the attention of others involves constructing a deep model that is informed by a combination of cues. Attention is a rich process and monitoring the attention of others involves a similarly rich representation.
Hill, K. W.; Gao, L.; Kraus, B. F.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P. C.; Pablant, N. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Thorn, D. B.; Chen, H.; Kauffman, R. L.; Liedahl, D. A.; MacDonald, M. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Scott, H. A.; Stoupin, S.; Doron, R.; Stambulchik, E.; Maron, Y.; Lahmann, B.
Numerical data used to draw the figures in the manuscript
Using a recently installed impurity powder dropper (IPD), boron powder (< 150 μm) was injected into lower single null (LSN) L-mode discharges in WEST. IPDs possibly enable real-time wall conditioning of the plasma-facing components and may help to facilitate H-mode access in the full-tungsten environment of WEST. The discharges in this experiment featured Ip = 0.5 MA, BT = 3.7 T, q95 = 4.3, tpulse = 12–30 s, ne,0 ~ 4×1019 m-2, and PLHCD ~ 4.5 MW. Estimates of the deuterium and impurity particle fluxes, derived from a combination of visible spectroscopy measurements and their corresponding S/XB coefficients, showed decreases of ~ 50% in O+, N+, and C+ populations during powder injection and a moderate reduction of these low-Z impurities (~ 50%) and W (~ 10%) in the discharges that followed powder injection. Along with the improved wall conditions, WEST discharges with B powder injection observed improved confinement, as the stored energy WMHD, neutron rate, and electron temperature Te increased significantly (10–25% for WMHD and 60–200% for the neutron rate) at constant input power. These increases in confinement scale up with the powder drop rate and are likely due to the suppression of ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence from changes in Zeff and/or modifications to the electron density profile.
This distribution compiles numerous physical properties for 2,585 intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) obtained by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation. This combination comprises "Dataset A" as reported in "Featurization strategies for polymer sequence or composition design by machine learning" by Roshan A. Patel, Carlos H. Borca, and Michael A. Webb (DOI: 10.1039/D1ME00160D). The specific IDP sequences are sourced from version 9.0 of the DisProt database. The simulations were performed using the LAMMPS molecular dynamics engine. The interactions used for simulation are obtained from R. M. Regy , J. Thompson , Y. C. Kim and J. Mittal , Improved coarse-grained model for studying sequence dependent phase separation of disordered proteins, Protein Sci., 2021, 1371 —1379.
This distribution contains experimentally measured data for the extent of retained enzyme activity post thermal stressing for three distinct enzymes: glucose oxidase, lipase, and horseradish peroxidase. The data is used to form conclusions and develop machine learning models as reported in the publication "Machine Learning on a Robotic Platform for the Design of Polymer-Protein Hybrids" by Matthew Tamasi, Roshan Patel, Carlos Borca, Shashank Kosuri, Heloise Mugnier, Rahul Upadhya, N. Sanjeeva Murthy, Michael Webb*, and Adam Gormley. Details regarding the experimental protocols are reported in the aforementioned paper but are briefly discussed in the README.
Gilson, Erik; Lee, H; Bortolon, A; Choe, W; Diallo, A; Hong, SH; Lee, HM; Maingi, R; Mansfield, DK; Nagy, A; Park, SH; Song, IW; Song, JI; Yun, SW; Nazikian, R
Results from KSTAR powder injection experiments, in which tens of milligrams of boron nitride (BN) were dropped into low-power H-mode plasmas, show an improvement in wall conditions in subsequent discharges and, in some cases, a reduction or elimination of edge-localized modes (ELMs). Injected powder is distributed by the plasma flow and is deposited on the wall and, over the course of several discharges, was observed to gradually reduce recycling by 33%, and decrease both the ELM amplitude and frequency. This is the first demonstration of the use of BN for ELM mitigation. In all of these experiments, an Impurity Powder Dropper (IPD) was used to introduce precise, controllable amounts of the materials into ELMy H-mode KSTAR discharges. The plasma duration was between 10 s and 15 s, 𝐼𝑝 = 500 kA, 𝐵𝑇 = 1.8 T, 𝑃NBI = 1.6 MW, and 𝑃ECH = 0.6 MW. Plasma densities were between 2 and 3 × 1019 m−3. In all cases, the pre-fill and startup gas-fueling was kept constant, suggesting that the decrease in baseline D𝛼 emission is in fact due to a reduction in recycling. The results presented herein highlight the viability of powder injection for intra-shot and between-shot wall conditioning.