Verdoolaege, G.; Kaye, S.M.; Angioni, C.; Kardaunn, O.W.J.F.; Maslov, M.; Romanelli, M.; Ryter, F.; Thomsen, K.
The multi-machine ITPA Global H-mode Confinement Database has been upgraded with new data from JET with the ITER-like wall and ASDEX Upgrade with the full tungsten wall. This paper describes the new database and presents results of regression analysis to estimate the global energy confinement scaling in H-mode plasmas using a standard power law. Various subsets of the database are considered, focusing on type of wall and divertor materials, confinement regime (all H-modes, ELMy H or ELM-free) and ITER-like constraints. Apart from ordinary least squares, two other, robust regression techniques are applied, which take into account uncertainty on all variables. Regression on data from individual devices shows that, generally, the confinement dependence on density and the power degradation are weakest in the fully metallic devices. Using the multi-machine scalings, predictions are made of the confinement time in a standard ELMy H-mode scenario in ITER. The uncertainty on the scaling parameters is discussed with a view to practically useful error bars on the parameters and predictions. One of the derived scalings for ELMy H-modes on an ITER-like subset is studied in particular and compared to the IPB98(y,2) confinement scaling in engineering and dimensionless form. Transformation of this new scaling from engineering variables to dimensionless quantities is shown to result in large error bars on the dimensionless scaling. Regression analysis in the space of dimensionless variables is therefore proposed as an alternative, yielding acceptable estimates for the dimensionless scaling. The new scaling, which is dimensionally correct within the uncertainties, suggests that some dependencies of confinement in the multi- machine database can be reconciled with parameter scans in individual devices. This includes vanishingly small dependence of confinement on line-averaged density and normalized plasma pressure (β), as well as a noticeable, positive dependence on effective atomic mass and plasma triangularity. Extrapolation of this scaling to ITER yields a somewhat lower confinement time compared to the IPB98(y, 2) prediction, possibly related to the considerably weaker dependence on major radius in the new scaling (slightly above linear). Further studies are needed to compare more flexible regression models with the power law used here. In addition, data from more devices concerning possible ‘hidden variables’ could help to determine their influence on confinement, while adding data in sparsely populated areas of the parameter space may contribute to further disentangling some of the global confinement dependencies in tokamak plasmas.
Vertical displacement events (VDEs) can occur in elongated tokamaks causing large currents to flow in the vessel and other adjacent metallic structures. To better understand the potential magnitude of the associated forces and the role of the so called ``halo currents'' on them, we have used the M3D-C1 code to simulate potential VDEs in ITER. We used actual values for the vessel resistivity and pre-quench temperatures and, unlike most of the previous studies, the halo region is naturally formed by triggering the thermal quench with an increase in the plasma thermal conductivity. We used the 2D non-linear version of the code and vary the post-thermal quench thermal conductivity profile as well as the boundary temperature in order to generate a wide range of possible cases that could occur in the experiment. We also show that, for a similar condition, increasing the halo current does not increase the total force on the wall since it is offset by a decrease in the toroidal contribution.
The Electromagnetic Particle Injector (EPI) concept is advanced through the simulation of ablatant deposition into ITER H-mode discharges with calculations showing penetration past the H-mode pedestal for a range of injection velocities and granule sizes concurrent with the requirements of disruption mitigation. As discharge stored energy increases in future fusion devices such as ITER, control and handling of disruption events becomes a critical issue. An unmitigated disruption could lead to failure of the plasma facing components resulting in financially and politically costly repairs. Methods to facilitate the quench of an unstable high current discharge are required. With the onset warning time for some ITER disruption events estimated to be less than 10 ms, a disruption mitigation system needs to be considered which operates at injection speeds greater than gaseous sound speeds. Such an actuator could then serve as a means to augment presently planned pneumatic injection systems. The EPI uses a rail gun concept whereby a radiative payload is delivered into the discharge by means of the JxB forces generated by an external current pulse, allowing for injection velocities in excess of 1 km/s. The present status of the EPI project is outlined, including the addition of boost magnetic coils. These coils augment the self-generated rail gun magnetic field and thus provide a more efficient acceleration of the payload. The coils and the holder designed to constrain them have been modelled with the ANSYS code to ensure structural integrity through the range of operational coil cu
Leading resistive wall mode (RWM) stability codes MARS-K [Y. Liu, et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 112503 (2008)] and MISK [B. Hu, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 057301 (2005)] have been previously benchmarked. The benchmarking has now been extended to include additional physics, and used to project the stability of ITER in a realistic operating space. Due to ITER's relatively low plasma rotation and collisionality, collisions and non-resonance rotational effects were both found to have little impact on stability, and these non-resonance rotational effects also will not self-consistently affect the ITER RWM eigenfunction. Resonances between thermal ions and electrons and the expected level of ITER toroidal rotation were found to be important to stability, as were alpha particles, which are not in rotational resonance. MISK calculations show that without alpha particles, ITER is projected to be unstable to the RWM, but the expected level of alphas is calculated to provide a sufficient level of stability.