We report the first successful use of lithium (Li) to eliminate edge-localized modes (ELMs) with tungsten divertor plasma-facing components in the EAST device. Li powder injected into the scrape-off layer of the tungsten upper divertor successfully eliminated ELMs for 3-5 sec in EAST. The ELM elimination became progressively more effective in consecutive discharges at constant lithium delivery rates, and the divertor D-alpha baseline emission was reduced, both signatures of improved wall conditioning. A modest decrease in stored energy and normalized energy confinement was also observed, but the confinement relative to H98 remained well above 1, extending the previous ELM elimination results via Li injection into the lower carbon divertor in EAST [J.S. Hu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 055001]. These results can be compared with recent observations with lithium pellets in ASDEX-Upgrade that failed to mitigate ELMs [P.T. Lang et al., Nucl. Fusion 57 (2017) 016030], highlighting one comparative advantage of continuous powder injection for real-time ELM elimination.
A sequence of H-mode discharges with increasing levels of pre-discharge lithium evaporation (�dose�) was conducted in high triangularity and elongation boundary shape in NSTX. Energy confinement increased, and recycling decreased with increasing lithium dose, similar to a previous lithium dose scan in medium triangularity and elongation plasmas. Data-constrained SOLPS interpretive modeling quantified the edge transport change: the electron particle diffusivity decreased by 10-30x. The electron thermal diffusivity decreased by 4x just inside the top of the pedestal, but increased by up to 5x very near the separatrix. These results provide a baseline expectation for lithium benefits in NSTX-U, which is optimized for a boundary shape similar to the one in this experiment.