Gas puff imaging (GPI) is a diagnostic of plasma turbulence which uses
a puff of neutral gas at the plasma edge to increase the local visible
light emission for improved space-time resolution of plasma
fluctuations. This paper reviews gas puff imaging diagnostics of edge
plasma turbulence in magnetic fusion research, with a focus on the
instrumentation, diagnostic cross-checks, and interpretation
issues. The gas puff imaging hardware, optics, and detectors are
described for about 10 GPI systems implemented over the past ~15
years. Comparison of GPI results with other edge turbulence diagnostic
results are described and many common features are observed. Several
issues in the interpretation of GPI measurements are discussed, and
potential improvements in hardware and modeling are suggested.
Petsev, Nikolai D.; Nikoubashman, Arash; Latinwo, Folarin
Source code for our genetic algorithm optimization investigation of conglomerate and racemic chiral crystals. In this work, we address challenges in determining the stable structures formed by chiral molecules by applying the framework of genetic algorithms to predict the ground state crystal lattices formed by a chiral tetramer model. Using this code, we explore the relative stability and structures of the model’s conglomerate and racemic crystals, and extract a structural phase diagram for the stable Bravais crystal types in the zero-temperature limit.
Boronization is commonly utilized in tokamaks to suppress intrinsic impurities, most notably oxygen from residual water vapor. However, this is a temporary solution, as oxygen levels typically return to pre-boronization levels following repeated plasma exposure. The global impurity migration model WallDYN has been applied to the post-boronization surface impurity evolution in NSTX-U. A “Thin Film Model” has been incorporated into WallDYN to handle spatially inhomogeneous conditioning films of varying thicknesses, together with an empirical boron conditioning model for the NSTX-U glow discharge boronization process. The model qualitatively reproduces the spatial distribution of boron in the NSTX-U vessel, the spatially-resolved divertor emission pattern, and the increase in oxygen levels following boronization. The simulations suggest that oxygen is primarily sourced from wall locations without heavy plasma flux or significant boron deposition, namely the lower and upper passive plates and the lower private flux zone.
The materials include codes and example input / output files for Monte Carlo simulations of lattice chains in the grand canonical ensemble, for determining phase behavior, critical points, and formation of aggregates.
Dielectric tensor for crystalline graphite from X-ray to microwave frequencies, as discussed in the paper "Graphite Revisited" (Draine 2016, Astrophysical Journal, in press). Cross sections for absorption and scattering by graphite spheres and spheroids are also tabulated, as well as Planck-averaged cross sections for absorption and scattering of radiation with a Planck spectrum.
Stoltzfus-Dueck, T; Hornsby, W A; Grosshauser, S R
Ion Landau damping interacts with a portion of the E×B drift to cause a non-diffusive outward flux of co-current toroidal angular momentum. Quantitative evaluation of this momentum flux requires nonlinear simulations to determine fL, the fraction of fluctuation free energy that passes through ion Landau damping, in fully developed turbulence. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations with the GKW code confirm the presence of the systematic symmetry-breaking momentum flux. For simulations with adiabatic electrons, fL scales inversely with the ion temperature gradient, because only the ion curvature drift can transfer free energy to the electrostatic potential. Although kinetic electrons should in principle relax this restriction, the ion Landau damping measured in collisionless kinetic-electron simulations remained at low levels comparable with ion-curvature-drift transfer, except when magnetic shear was strong. A set of simulations scanning the electron pitch-angle scattering rate showed only a weak variation of fL with the electron collisionality. However, collisional-electron simulations with electron temperature greater than ion temperature unambiguously showed electron-curvature-drift transfer supporting ion Landau damping, leading to a corresponding enhancement of the symmetry-breaking momentum flux.
Hager, R.; Chang, C. S.; Ferraro, N. M.; Nazikian R.
Self-consistent simulations of neoclassical and electrostatic turbulent transport in a DIII-D H-mode edge plasma under resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have been performed using the global total-f gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code XGC, in order to study density-pump out and electron heat confinement.The RMP field is imported from the extended magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code M3D-C1, taking into account the linear two-fluid plasma response.With both neoclassical and turbulence physics considered together, the XGC simulation reproduces two key features of experimentally observed edge transport under RMPs: increased radial particle transport in the pedestal region that is sufficient to account for the experimental pump-out rate, and suppression of the electron heat flux in the steepest part of the edge pedestal.In the simulation, the density fluctuation amplitude of modes moving in the electron diamagnetic direction increases due to interaction with RMPs in the pedestal shoulder and outward, while the electron temperature fluctuation amplitude decreases.
This dataset is affiliated with the publication https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-022-03455-0. All of the data provided is necessary to reproduce the results with the aforementioned publication. The data in this repository is for the wake of a wind turbine at high Reynolds numbers. The data is mainly used for reproducing the statistics (deficit and variance profiles) and the phase averaged results.