This work continues a series of papers where we propose an algorithm for quasioptical modeling of electromagnetic beams with and without mode conversion. The general theory was reported in the first paper of this series, where a parabolic partial differential equation was derived for the field envelope that may contain one or multiple modes with close group velocities. Here, we present a corresponding code PARADE (PAraxial RAy DEscription) and its test applications to single-mode beams in vacuum and also in inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. The numerical results are compared, respectively, with analytic formulas from Gaussian-beam optics and also with cold-plasma ray tracing. Quasioptical simulations of mode-converting beams are reported in the next, third paper of this series.
This work continues a series of papers where we propose an algorithm for quasioptical modeling of electromagnetic beams with and without mode conversion. The general theory was reported in the first paper of this series, where a parabolic partial differential equation was derived for the field envelope that may contain one or multiple modes with close group velocities. In the second paper, we presented a corresponding code PARADE (PAraxial RAy DEscription) and its test applications to single-mode beams. Here, we report quasioptical simulations of mode-converting beams for the first time. We also demonstrate that PARADE can model splitting of two-mode beams. The numerical results produced by PARADE show good agreement with those of one-dimensional full-wave simulations and also with conventional ray tracing (to the extent that one-dimensional and ray-tracing simulations are applicable).
This repository contains the raw photon-by-photon single-molecule FRET (smFRET) trajectories, SAXS data, and MD simulation trajectories, multi-sequence alignment, and gel images for the paper titled "Sub-Domain Dynamics Enables Chemical Chain Reactions in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases."
A radiative divertor technique is planned for the NSTX-U tokamak to prevent excessive erosion and thermal damage of divertor plasma-facing components in H-mode plasma discharges with auxiliary heating up to 12 MW.
In the radiative (partially detached) divertor, extrinsically seeded deuterium or impurity gases are used to increase
plasma volumetric power and momentum losses.
A real-time feedback control of the gas seeding rate is planned for discharges of up to 5 s duration.
The outer divertor leg plasma electron temperature Te estimated spectroscopically in real time will be used as a control parameter.
A vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer McPherson Model 251 with a fast charged-coupled device detector is developed for temperature monitoring between 5 and 30 eV, based on the delta n=0;1 line intensity ratios of carbon, nitrogen or neon ions lines in the spectral range 300 to 1600 A.
A collisional-radiative model-based line intensity ratio will be used for relative calibration.
A real-time Te-dependent signal within a characteristic divertor detachment equilibration time of ~ 10-15 ms is expected.
A new model of heating, current drive, torque and other effects of neutral beam injection on NSTX-U that uses neural networks has been developed. The model has been trained and tested on the results of the Monte Carlo code NUBEAM for the database of experimental discharges taken during the first operational campaign of NSTX-U. By projecting flux surface quantities onto empirically derived basis functions, the model is able to efficiently and accurately reproduce the behavior of both scalars, like the total neutron rate and shine through, and profiles, like beam current drive and heating. The model has been tested on the NSTX-U real-time computer, demonstrating a rapid execution time orders of magnitude faster than the Monte Carlo code that is well suited for the iterative calculations needed to interpret experimental results, optimization during scenario development activities, and real-time plasma control applications. Simulation results of a proposed design for a nonlinear observer that embeds the neural network calculations to estimate the poloidal flux profile evolution, as well as effective charge and fast ion diffusivity, are presented.
A reduced semi-empirical model using time-dependent axisymmetric vacuum field calculations is used to develop the prefill and feed-forward coil current targets required for reliable direct induction (DI) startup on the new MA-class spherical tokamaks, MAST-U and NSTX-U. The calculations are constrained by operational limits unique to each device, such as the geometry of the conductive elements and active coils, power supply specifications and coil heating and stress limits. The calculations are also constrained by semi-empirical models for sufficient breakdown, current drive, equilibrium and stability of the plasma developed from a shared database. A large database of DI startup on NSTX and NSTX-U is leveraged to quantify the requirements for achieving a reliable breakdown (Ip ~ 20 kA). It is observed that without pre-ionization, STs access the large E/P regime at modest loop voltage (Vloop) where the electrons in the weakly ionized plasma are continually accelerating along the open field lines. This ensures a rapid (order millisecond) breakdown of the neutral gas, even without pre-ionization or high-quality field nulls. The timescale of the initial increase in Ip on NSTX is reproduced in the reduced model provided a mechanism for impeding the applied electric field is included. Most discharges that fail in the startup phase are due to an inconsistency in the evolution of the plasma current (Ip) and equilibrium field or loss of vertical stability during the burn-through phase. The requirements for the self-consistent evolution of the fields in the weakly and full-ionized plasma states are derived from demonstrated DI startup on NSTX, NSTX-U and MAST. The predictive calculations completed for MAST-U and NSTX-U illustrate that the maximum Ip ramp rate (dIp/dt) in the early startup phase is limited by the voltage limits on the poloidal field coils on MAST-U and passive vertical stability on NSTX-U.
Rafidi, Nicole S; Hulbert, Justin C; Brooks, Paula P; Norman, Kenneth A
Repeated testing (as opposed to repeated study) leads to improved long-term memory retention, but the mechanism underlying this improvement remains controversial. In this work, we test the hypothesis that retrieval practice benefits subsequent recall by reducing competition from related memories. This hypothesis implies that the degree of reduction in competition between retrieval practice attempts should predict subsequent memory for the practiced items. To test this prediction, we collected electroencephalography (EEG) data across two sessions. In the first session, participants practiced selectively retrieving exemplars from superordinate semantic categories (high competition), as well as retrieving the names of the superordinate categories from exemplars (low competition). In the second session, participants repeatedly studied and were then tested on Swahili-English vocabulary. One week after session two, participants were again tested on the vocabulary. We trained a within-subject classifier on the data from session one to distinguish high and low competition states. We then used this classifier to measure competition across multiple retrieval practice attempts in the second session. The degree to which competition decreased for a given vocabulary word predicted whether that item was subsequently remembered in the third session. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that repeated testing improves retention by reducing competition.
Recently published scenarios for fully non-inductive startup and operation on the National Spherical
Torus eXperiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) (Menard et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 083015) show Electron
Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) as an important component in preparing a target plasma for
efficient High Harmonic Fast Wave and Neutral Beam heating. The modeling of the propagation and
absorption of EC waves in the evolving plasma is required to define the most effective window of
operation, and to optimize the launcher geometry for maximal heating and current drive during this
window. Here, we extend a previous optimization of O1-mode ECRH on NSTX-U to account for the
full time-dependent performance of the ECRH using simulations performed with TRANSP. We find
that the evolution of the density profile has a prominent role in the optimization by defining the time
window of operation, which in certain cases may be a more important metric to compare launcher
performance than the average power absorption. This feature cannot be captured by analysis on static
profiles, and should be accounted for when optimizing ECRH on any device that operates near the
cutoff density. Additionally, the utility of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) in driving current and
generating closed flux surfaces in the early startup phase has been demonstrated on a number of
devices. Using standalone GENRAY simulations, we find that efficient EBW current drive is
possible on NSTX-U if the injection angle is shifted below the midplane and aimed towards the top
half of the vacuum vessel. However, collisional damping of the EBW is projected to be significant, in
some cases accounting for up to 97% of the absorbed EBW power
Amazonian deforestation causes systematic changes in regional dry season precipitation. Some of these changes at contemporary large scales (a few hundreds of kilometers) of deforestation have been associated with a ‘dynamical mesoscale circulation’, induced by the replacement of rough forest with smooth pasture. In terms of decadal averages, this dynamical mechanism yields increased precipitation in downwind regions and decreased precipitation in upwind regions of deforested areas. Daily, seasonal, and interannual variations in this phenomenon may exist, but have not yet been identified or explained. This study uses observations and numerical simulations to develop relationships between the dynamical mechanism and the local- and continental-scale atmospheric conditions across a range of time scales. It is found that the strength of the dynamical mechanism is primarily controlled by the regional-scale thermal and dynamical conditions of the boundary layer, and not by the continental- and global-scale atmospheric state. Lifting condensation level and wind speed within the boundary layer have large and positive correlations with the strength of the dynamical mechanism. The strength of these relationships depends on time scale and is strongest over the seasonal cycle. Overall, the dynamical mechanism is found to be strongest during times when the atmosphere is relatively stable. Hence, for contemporary large scales of deforestation this phenomenon is found to be the prevalent convective triggering mechanism during the dry and parts of transition seasons (especially during the dry-to-wet transition), significantly affecting the hydroclimate during this period.