Helium line-ratios for electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) plasma diagnostic
in the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL) and Edge regions of tokamaks are widely used.
Due to their intensities and proximity of wavelengths, the singlet 667.8 and 728.1
nm, and triplet 706.5 nm visible lines have been typically preferred. Time-
dependency of the triplet line (706.5 nm) has been previously analyzed in detail by
including transient effects on line-ratios during gas-puff diagnostic applications. In this work, several line-ratio combinations within each of the two spin systems are
analyzed with the purpose of eliminating transient effects to extend the application
of this powerful diagnostic to high temporal resolution characterization of
plasmas. The analysis is done using synthetic emission modeling and diagnostic
for low electron density NSTX SOL plasma conditions for several visible lines.
This analysis employs both quasi-static equilibrium and time-dependent models in
order to evaluate transient effects of the atomic population levels that may affect
the derived electron temperatures and densities as a helium gas-puff penetrates the
plasma. Ratios between the most intense lines are usually preferred due to their
higher signal to noise ratio. The analysis of a wider range of spectral lines will
help to extend this powerful diagnostic to experiments where the wavelength
range of the measured spectra may be constrained either by limitations of the
spectrometer, or by other conflicting lines from different ions.
The Far-infrared Tangential Interferometer/Polarimeter (FIReTIP) system has been refurbished and
is being reinstalled on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) to supply
real-time line-integrated core electron density measurements for use in the NSTX-U plasma control
system (PCS) to facilitate real-time density feedback control of the NSTX-U plasma. Inclusion
of a visible light heterodyne interferometer in the FIReTIP system allows for real-time vibration
compensation due to movement of an internally mounted retroreflector and the FIReTIP front-end
optics. Real-time signal correction is achieved through use of a National Instruments CompactRIO
field-programmable gate array.
Wang, Rui; Guo, Xuehui; Pan, Da; Kelly, James; Bash, Jesse; Sun, Kang; Paulot, Fabien; Clarisse, Lieven; Van Damme, Martin; Whitburn, Simon; Coheur, Pierre-François; Clerbaux, Cathy; Zondlo, Mark
Monthly, high resolution (~2 km) ammonia (NH3) column maps from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) were developed across the contiguous United States and adjacent areas. Ammonia hotspots (95th percentile of the column distribution) were highly localized with a characteristic length scale of 12 km and median area of 152 km2. Five seasonality classes were identified with k-means++ clustering. The Midwest and eastern United States had a broad, spring maximum of NH3 (67% of hotspots in this cluster). The western United States, in contrast, showed a narrower mid-summer peak (32% of hotspots). IASI spatiotemporal clustering was consistent with those from the Ammonia Monitoring Network. CMAQ and GFDL-AM3 modeled NH3 columns have some success replicating the seasonal patterns but did not capture the regional differences. The high spatial-resolution monthly NH3 maps serve as a constraint for model simulations and as a guide for the placement of future, ground-based network sites.
The upgrade to the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX-U) included two main improvements: a larger center-stack, enabling higher toroidal field and longer pulse duration, and the addition of three new tangentially aimed neutral beam sources, which increase available heating and current drive, and allow for flexibility in shaping power, torque, current, and particle deposition profiles. To best use these new capabilities and meet the high-performance operational goals of NSTX-U, major upgrades to the NSTX-U Control System (NCS) hardware and software have been made. Several control algorithms, including those used for real-time equilibrium reconstruction and shape control, have been upgraded to improve and extend plasma control capabilities. As part of the commissioning phase of first plasma operations, the shape control system was tuned to control the boundary in both inner-wall limited and diverted discharges. It has been used to accurately track the requested evolution of the boundary (including the size of the inner gap between the plasma and central solenoid, which is a challenge for the ST configuration), X-point locations, and strike point locations, enabling repeatable discharge evolutions for scenario development and diagnostic commissioning.
The Enhanced Pedestal (EP) H-mode regime is an attractive wide-pedestal ELM-free high-betap scenario for NSTX-U and next-step devices as it achieves enhanced energy confinement (H98y,2 > 1.5), large normalized pressure (betaN > 5) and significant bootstrap fraction (f_BS > 0.6) at I_p/B_T = 2 MA/T. This regime is realized when the edge ion collisionality becomes sufficiently small that a positive feedback interaction occurs between a reduction in the ion neoclassical energy transport and an increase in the particle transport from pressure-driven edge instabilities. EP H-mode was most often observed as a transition following a large ELM in conditions with low edge neutral recycling. It is hypothesized that the onset of pressure-driven instabilities prior to the full recovery of the neutral density leads to a temporary period with elevated ion temperature gradient that triggers the transition to EP H-mode. Linear CGYRO and M3D-C1 calculations are compared to beam emission spectroscopy (BES) and magnetic spectroscopy in order to describe the evolution of the edge particle transport mechanisms during the ELM recovery and the saturated EP H-mode state. The observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the onset of pressure-driven edge instabilities, such as the KBM and kink-peeling, can be responsible for the increased particle transport in EP H-mode.
Stotler, D.P.; Battaglia, D.J.; Hager, R.; Kim, K.; Koskela, T.; Park, G.; Reinke, M.L.
Modifications of the drift-kinetic transport code XGC0 to include the
transport, ionization, and recombination of individual charge states,
as well as the associated radiation, are described. The code is first
applied to a simulation of an NSTX H-mode discharge with carbon
impurity to demonstrate the approach to coronal equilibrium. The
effects of neoclassical phenomena on the radiated power profile are
examined sequentially through the activation of individual physics
modules in the code. Orbit squeezing and the neoclassical inward
pinch result in increased radiation for temperatures above a few
hundred eV and changes to the ratios of charge state emissions at a
given electron temperature. Analogous simulations with a neon
impurity yield qualitatively similar results.
A reduced semi-empirical model using time-dependent axisymmetric vacuum field calculations is used to develop the prefill and feed-forward coil current targets required for reliable direct induction (DI) startup on the new MA-class spherical tokamaks, MAST-U and NSTX-U. The calculations are constrained by operational limits unique to each device, such as the geometry of the conductive elements and active coils, power supply specifications and coil heating and stress limits. The calculations are also constrained by semi-empirical models for sufficient breakdown, current drive, equilibrium and stability of the plasma developed from a shared database. A large database of DI startup on NSTX and NSTX-U is leveraged to quantify the requirements for achieving a reliable breakdown (Ip ~ 20 kA). It is observed that without pre-ionization, STs access the large E/P regime at modest loop voltage (Vloop) where the electrons in the weakly ionized plasma are continually accelerating along the open field lines. This ensures a rapid (order millisecond) breakdown of the neutral gas, even without pre-ionization or high-quality field nulls. The timescale of the initial increase in Ip on NSTX is reproduced in the reduced model provided a mechanism for impeding the applied electric field is included. Most discharges that fail in the startup phase are due to an inconsistency in the evolution of the plasma current (Ip) and equilibrium field or loss of vertical stability during the burn-through phase. The requirements for the self-consistent evolution of the fields in the weakly and full-ionized plasma states are derived from demonstrated DI startup on NSTX, NSTX-U and MAST. The predictive calculations completed for MAST-U and NSTX-U illustrate that the maximum Ip ramp rate (dIp/dt) in the early startup phase is limited by the voltage limits on the poloidal field coils on MAST-U and passive vertical stability on NSTX-U.
The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) will advance the physics basis required for achieving steady-state, high-beta, and high-confinement conditions in a tokamak by accessing high toroidal field (1 T) and plasma current (1.0 - 2.0 MA) in a low aspect ratio geometry (A = 1.6 - 1.8) with flexible auxiliary heating systems (12 MW NBI, 6 MW HHFW). This paper describes progress in the development of L- and H-mode discharge scenarios and the commissioning of operational tools in the first ten weeks of operation that enable the scientific mission of NSTX-U. Vacuum field calculations completed prior to operations supported the rapid development and optimization of inductive breakdown at different values of ohmic solenoid current. The toroidal magnetic field (B_T0 = 0.65 T) exceeded the maximum values achieved on NSTX and novel long-pulse L-mode discharges with regular sawtooth activity exceeded the longest pulses produced on NSTX (tpulse > 1.8s). The increased flux of the central solenoid facilitated the development of stationary L-mode discharges over a range of density and plasma current (Ip). H-mode discharges achieved similar levels of stored energy, confinement (H98y,2 > 1) and stability (beta_N/beta_N-nowall > 1) compared to NSTX discharges for Ip < 1 MA. High-performance H-mode scenarios require an L-H transition early in the Ip ramp-up phase in order to obtain low internal inductance (li) throughout the discharge, which is conducive to maintaining vertical stability at high elongation (kappa > 2.2) and achieving long periods of MHD quiescent operations. The rapid progress in developing L- and H-mode scenarios in support of the scientific program was enabled by advances in real-time plasma control, efficient error field identification and correction, effective conditioning of the graphite wall and excellent diagnostic availability.
Yang, Yuan; Pan, Ming; Beck, Hylke; Fisher, Colby; Beighley, R. Edward; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Hong, Yang; Wood, Eric
Conventional basin-by-basin approaches to calibrate hydrologic models are limited to gauged basins and typically result in spatially discontinuous parameter fields. Moreover, the consequent low calibration density in space falls seriously behind the need from present-day applications like high resolution river hydrodynamic modeling. In this study we calibrated three key parameters of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model at every 1/8° grid-cell using machine learning-based maps of four streamflow characteristics for the conterminous United States (CONUS), with a total of 52,663 grid-cells. This new calibration approach, as an alternative to parameter regionalization, applied to ungauged regions too. A key difference made here is that we tried to regionalize physical variables (streamflow characteristics) instead of model parameters whose behavior may often be less well understood. The resulting parameter fields no longer presented any spatial discontinuities and the patterns corresponded well with climate characteristics, such as aridity and runoff ratio. The calibrated parameters were evaluated against observed streamflow from 704/648 (calibration/validation period) small-to-medium-sized catchments used to derive the streamflow characteristics, 3941/3809 (calibration/validation period) small-to-medium-sized catchments not used to derive the streamflow characteristics) as well as five large basins. Comparisons indicated marked improvements in bias and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Model performance was still poor in arid and semiarid regions, which is mostly due to both model structural and forcing deficiencies. Although the performance gain was limited by the relative small number of parameters to calibrate, the study and results here served as a proof-of-concept for a new promising approach for fine-scale hydrologic model calibrations.