It is well known that formation of new episodic memories depends on hippocampus, but in real-life settings (e.g., conversation), hippocampal amnesics can utilize information from several minutes earlier. What neural systems outside hippocampus might support this minutes-long retention? In this study, subjects viewed an audiovisual movie continuously for 25 min; another group viewed the movie in 2 parts separated by a 1-day delay. Understanding Part 2 depended on retrieving information from Part 1, and thus hippocampus was required in the day-delay condition. But is hippocampus equally recruited to access the same information from minutes earlier? We show that accessing memories from a few minutes prior elicited less interaction between hippocampus and default mode network (DMN) cortical regions than accessing day-old memories of identical events, suggesting that recent information was available with less reliance on hippocampal retrieval. Moreover, the 2 groups evinced
reliable but distinct DMN activity timecourses, reflecting differences in information carried in these regions when Part 1 was recent versus distant. The timecourses converged after 4 min, suggesting a time frame over which the continuous-viewing group may have relied less on hippocampal retrieval. We propose that cortical default mode regions can intrinsically retain real-life episodic information for several minutes.
Saturation of \alfven modes driven unstable by a
distribution of high energy particles as a function of collisionality
is investigated with a guiding
center code, using numerical eigenfunctions produced by linear theory and
numerical high energy particle distributions. The most important
resonance is found and it is shown that when the resonance domain is bounded,
not allowing particles to collisionlessly escape, the saturation amplitude
is given by the balance of the resonance mixing time with the time for
nearby particles to collisionally diffuse across the resonance width.
Saturation amplitudes are in agreement with theoretical predictions as
long as the mode amplitude is not so large that it produces stochastic
loss from the resonance domain.
A compact and multi-view Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) diagnostic based on silicon photodiode arrays has been successfully tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). The SSNPA diagnostic provides spatially, temporally, and pitch-angle resolved measurements of fast-ion distribution by detecting fast neutral flux resulting from charge exchange (CX) reactions. The system consists of three 16-channel subsystems: t-SSNPA viewing the plasma mid-radius and neutral beam (NB) line #2 tangentially, r-SSNPA viewing the plasma core and NB line #1 radially and p-SSNPA with no intersection with any NB lines. Due to the setup geometry, the active CX signals of t-SSNPA and r-SSNPA are mainly sensitive to passing and trapped particles respectively. In addition, both t-SSNPA and r-SSNPA utilize three vertically stacked arrays with different filter thickness to obtain coarse energy information. The experimental data show that all channels are operational. The signal to noise ratio is typically larger than 10 and the main noise is x-ray induced signal. The active and passive CX signals are clearly observed on t-SSNPA and r-SSNPA during NB modulation. The SSNPA data also indicate significant losses of passing particles during sawteeth, while trapped particles are weakly affected. Fluctuations up to 120 kHz, have been observed on SSNPA, and they are strongly correlated with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities.
Flesch, K.; Kremeyer, T.; Schmitz, O.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Wenzel, U.
Direct measurements of the helium (He) fractional neutral pressure in the neutral gas around fusion devices is challenging because of the small mass difference between the abundant D2 molecules and the He atoms which will be produced by D-T fusion. To study He exhaust, Penning gauges were used to measure total neutral pressure assisted by spectroscopy to resolve the D and He partial pressures. In this contribution, initial results are shown from developing this technique into a miniaturized configuration for direct in-situ measurements in the divertor of fusion devices. The configuration is based off a gauge originally designed for the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). The goal of this new miniaturized design it to reduce the space required by the gauge on the device and use of the inherent magnetic field of the machine rather than permanent magnets inside the gauge, enabling it to be adapted into a system that can be extended directly into the divertor region. The feasibility test of the method for NSTX-U and the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator are surveyed. For W7-X, a commercial Penning Gauge has been installed on an outboard vacuum flange as a generic feasibility test in the neutral gas environment of a stellarator. At an integration time of 25s, helium lines can be seen down to 10^-5 mbar and H-alpha lines down to 10^-6 mbar. Successful measurement of the total as well as the fractional neutral pressures of He and H has been shown. A first prototype of the miniature Penning gauge has been tested in Madison and shows a near linear power law scaling between current and pressure: I = C*P^n with n = 1.0 - 1.2. Pressure measurements were achieved starting at 10^-3 mbar and down to 10^-6 mbar. A modular gauge is being assembled, which allows easy interchangeability of the anode to test new anode geometries, in order to improve optical access and increase spectroscopic sensitivity. This shall enable an increase of the time resolution of the spectroscopically assisted fractional neutral pressure measurements to up to 1kHz.
A comprehensive set of spectroscopic diagnostics is planned in the National Spherical Torus Experi- ment Upgrade to connect measurements of molybdenum and tungsten divertor sources to scrape-o↵ layer (SOL) and core impurity transport, supporting the installation of high-Z plasma facing compo- nents which is scheduled to begin with a row of molybdenum tiles. Imaging with narrow-bandpass interference filters and high-resolution spectroscopy will be coupled to estimate divertor impurity influxes. Vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet spectrometers will allow connecting high-Z sources to SOL transport and core impurity content. The high-Z diagnostics suite complements the existing measurements for low-Z impurities (carbon and lithium), critical for the characterization of sputtering of high-Z materials.
A sequence of H-mode discharges with increasing levels of pre-discharge lithium evaporation (�dose�) was conducted in high triangularity and elongation boundary shape in NSTX. Energy confinement increased, and recycling decreased with increasing lithium dose, similar to a previous lithium dose scan in medium triangularity and elongation plasmas. Data-constrained SOLPS interpretive modeling quantified the edge transport change: the electron particle diffusivity decreased by 10-30x. The electron thermal diffusivity decreased by 4x just inside the top of the pedestal, but increased by up to 5x very near the separatrix. These results provide a baseline expectation for lithium benefits in NSTX-U, which is optimized for a boundary shape similar to the one in this experiment.
A subset of the Fermi-LAT public data for use with NPTFit:
The data here is for use with the Jupyter example notebooks provided with the
main code. Details of the files provided are given below. All files are provided
as numpy arrays binned as nside=128 HEALPix maps.
For the full public data, see: