Experimental demonstration of hydraulic jump control in liquid metal channel flow using Lorentz force

Fisher, Adam; Kolemen, Egemen; Hvasta, Mike
Issue date: 2018
Cite as:
Fisher, Adam, Kolemen, Egemen, & Hvasta, Mike. (2018). Experimental demonstration of hydraulic jump control in liquid metal channel flow using Lorentz force [Data set]. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University.
  author      = {Fisher, Adam and
                Kolemen, Egemen and
                Hvasta, Mike},
  title       = {{Experimental demonstration of hydraulic
                jump control in liquid metal channel flo
                w using Lorentz force}},
  publisher   = {{Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Pri
                nceton University}},
  year        = 2018

In this paper, hydraulic jump control using electromagnetic force in a liquid metal flow is presented. The control methods used give insight into the hydraulic jump behavior in the presence of magnetic fields and electrical currents. Flowing liquid metals is a proposed solution to heat flux challenges posed in fusion reactors, specifically the tokamak. Unfortunately, thin, fast-flowing liquid metal divertor concepts for fusion reactors are susceptible to hydraulic jumps that drastically reduce the liquid metal flow speed, leading to potential problems such as excessive evaporation, unsteady power removal, and possible plasma disruption. Highly electrically conductive flows within the magnetic fields do not exhibit traditional hydraulic jump behavior. There is very little research investigating the use of externally injected electrical currents and magnetic fields to control liquid metal hydraulic jumps. By using externally injected electrical currents and a magnetic field, a Lorentz force (also referred to as j × B force) may be generated to control the liquid metal jump behavior. In this work, a free-surface liquid metal—GaInSn eutectic or “galinstan”—flow through an electrically insulating rectangular duct was investigated. It was shown that applying a Lorentz force has a repeatable and predictable impact on the hydraulic jump, which can be used for liquid metal control within next-generation fusion reactors.

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