The growth of magnetic islands in NSTX is modeled successfully, with the consideration of passing fast ions. It is shown that a good quantitative agreement between simulation and experimental measurement can be achieved when the uncompensated cross-field current induced by passing fast ions is included in the island growth model. The fast ion parameters,
along with other equilibrium parameters, are obtained self-consistently using the TRANSP code with the assumptions of the ‘kick’ model (Podestà et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59 095008). The results show that fast ions can contribute to overcoming the stabilizing effect of polarization current for magnetic island growth.
Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields arising in a tokamak either by external or internal perturbations can induce complex non-ideal MHD responses in their resonant surfaces while remaining ideally evolved elsewhere. This layer response can be characterized in a linear regime by a single parameter called the inner-layer Delta, which enables outer-layer matching and the prediction of torque balance to non-linear island regimes. Here, we follow strictly one of the most comprehensive analytic treatments including two-fluid and drift MHD effects and keep the fidelity of the formulation by incorporating the numerical method based on the Riccati transformation when quantifying the inner-layer Delta. The proposed scheme reproduces not only the predicted responses in essentially all asymptotic regimes but also with continuous transitions as well as improved accuracies. In particular, the Delta variations across the inertial regimes with viscous or semi-collisional effects have been further resolved, in comparison with additional analytic solutions. The results imply greater shielding of the electromagnetic torque at the layer than what would be expected by earlier work when the viscous or semi-collisional effects can compete against the inertial effects, and also due to the intermediate regulation by kinetic Alfven wave resonances as rotation slows down. These are important features that can alter the nonaxisymmetric plasma responses including the field penetration by external fields or island seeding process in rotating tokamak plasmas.
Liquid metal can create a renewable protective surface on plasma facing components (PFC), with an additional advantage of deuterium pumping and the prospect of tritium extraction if liquid lithium (LL) is used and maintained below 450 C, the temperature above which LL vapor pressure begins to contaminate the plasma. LM can also be utilized as an efficient coolant, driven by the Lorentz force created with the help of the magnetic field in fusion devices. Capillary porous systems can serve as a conduit of LM and simultaneously provide stabilization of the LM flow, protecting against spills into the plasma. Recently a combination of a fast-flowing LM cooling system with a porous plasma facing wall (CPSF) was investigated [Khodak and Maingi (2021)]. The system takes an advantage of a magnetohydrodynamics velocity profile, as well as attractive LM properties to promote efficient heat transfer from the plasma to the LL at low pumping energy cost, relative to the incident heat flux on the PFC. In case of a disruption leading to excessive heat flux from the plasma to the LM PFCs, LL evaporation can stabilize the PFC surface temperature, due to high evaporation heat and apparent vapor shielding. The proposed CPSF was optimized analytically for the conditions of a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility [Kessel et al. (2019)]: 10T toroidal field and 10 MW/m2 peak incident heat flux. Computational fluid dynamics analysis confirmed that a CPSF system with 2.5 mm square channels can pump enough LL so that no additional coolant is needed.
Kraus, B. Frances; Gao, Lan; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P. C.; Hollinger, R.; Wang, Shoujun; Song, Huanyu; Nedbailo, R.; Rocca, J. J.; Mancini, R. C.; MacDonald, M. J.; Beatty, C. B.; Shepherd, R.
A high-resolution x-ray spectrometer was coupled with an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to produce time-resolved line shape spectra measured from hot, solid-density plasmas. A Bragg crystal was placed near a laser-produced plasma to maximize throughput; alignment tolerances were established by raytracing. The streak camera produced single-shot time-resolved spectra, heavily sloped due to photon time-of-flight differences, with sufficient reproducibility to accumulate photon statistics. The images are time-calibrated by the slope of streaked spectra and dewarped to generate spectra emitted at different times defined at the source. The streaked spectra demonstrate the evolution of spectral shoulders and other features on ps timescales, showing the feasibility of plasma parameter measurements on the rapid timescales necessary to study high-energy-density plasmas.
Hill, K. W.; Gao, L.; Kraus, B. F.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P. C.; Pablant, N. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Thorn, D. B.; Chen, H.; Kauffman, R. L.; Liedahl, D. A.; MacDonald, M. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Scott, H. A.; Stoupin, S.; Doron, R.; Stambulchik, E.; Maron, Y.; Lahmann, B.
Numerical data used to draw the figures in the manuscript
This is the supplemental material for the manuscript "Verification, validation, and results of an approximate model for the stress of a Tokamak toroidal field coil at the inboard midplane" submitted to Fusion Engineering and Design. This material includes PDF writeups of the derivations of the axisymmetric extended plane strain model, the elastic properties smearing model, and 20+ MATLAB scripts and functions which implement the model and generate the figures in the paper.
Schwartz, Jacob A.; Nelson, A. O.; Kolemen, Egemen
Shaping a tokamak plasma to have a negative triangularity may allow operation in an ELM-free L-mode regime and with a larger strike-point radius, ameliorating divertor power-handling requirements. However, the shaping has a potential drawback in the form of a lower no-wall ideal beta limit, found using the MHD codes CHEASE and DCON. Using the new fusion systems code FAROES, we construct a steady-state DEMO2 reactor model. This model is essentially zero-dimensional and neglects variations in physical mechanisms like turbulence, confinement, and radiative power limits, which could have a substantial impact on the conclusions deduced herein. Keeping its shape otherwise constant, we alter the triangularity and compute the effects on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). If the tokamak is limited to a fixed B field, then unless other means to increase performance (such as reduced turbulence, improved current drive efficiency or higher density operation) can be leveraged, a negative-triangularity reactor is strongly disfavored in the model due to lower \beta_N limits at negative triangularity, which leads to tripling of the LCOE. However, if the reactor is constrained by divertor heat fluxes and not by magnet engineering, then a negative-triangularity reactor with higher B0 could be favorable: we find a class of solutions at negative triangularity with lower peak heat flux and lower LCOE than those of the equivalent positive triangularity reactors.