Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields arising in a tokamak either by external or internal perturbations can induce complex non-ideal MHD responses in their resonant surfaces while remaining ideally evolved elsewhere. This layer response can be characterized in a linear regime by a single parameter called the inner-layer Delta, which enables outer-layer matching and the prediction of torque balance to non-linear island regimes. Here, we follow strictly one of the most comprehensive analytic treatments including two-fluid and drift MHD effects and keep the fidelity of the formulation by incorporating the numerical method based on the Riccati transformation when quantifying the inner-layer Delta. The proposed scheme reproduces not only the predicted responses in essentially all asymptotic regimes but also with continuous transitions as well as improved accuracies. In particular, the Delta variations across the inertial regimes with viscous or semi-collisional effects have been further resolved, in comparison with additional analytic solutions. The results imply greater shielding of the electromagnetic torque at the layer than what would be expected by earlier work when the viscous or semi-collisional effects can compete against the inertial effects, and also due to the intermediate regulation by kinetic Alfven wave resonances as rotation slows down. These are important features that can alter the nonaxisymmetric plasma responses including the field penetration by external fields or island seeding process in rotating tokamak plasmas.
NSTX-U research will offer new insight by studying gas assimilation efficiencies for MGI injection from different poloidal locations using identical gas injection systems. In support of this activity, an electromagnetic MGI valve has been built and tested. The valve operates by repelling two conductive disks due to eddy currents induced on them by a rapidly changing magnetic field created by a pancake disk solenoid positioned beneath the circular disk attached to a piston. The current is driven in opposite directions in the two solenoids, which creates a cancelling torque when the valve is operated in an ambient magnetic field, as would be required in a tokamak installation. The valve does not use ferromagnetic materials. Results from the operation of the valve, including tests conducted in 1 T external magnetic fields, are described. The pressure rise in the test chamber is measured directly using a fast time response baratron gauge. At a plenum pressure of just 1.38 MPa (~200 psig), the valve injects 27 Pa.m^3 (~200 Torr.L) of nitrogen with a pressure rise time of 3 ms.
The item included here is a collection of wave profiles collected and presented in the accompanying paper: Rucks, M. J., Winey, J. M., Toyoda, T., Gupta, Y. M., & Duffy, T. S. (in review). "Shock compression of fluorapatite to 120 GPa" Submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets.
This dataset includes individual CIF files with the refined structure of fluorapatite under compression to 61 GPa. The structures have been discussed in detail in the accompanying manuscript "Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of fluorapatite to 61 GPa"
A comprehensive set of spectroscopic diagnostics is planned in the National Spherical Torus Experi- ment Upgrade to connect measurements of molybdenum and tungsten divertor sources to scrape-o↵ layer (SOL) and core impurity transport, supporting the installation of high-Z plasma facing compo- nents which is scheduled to begin with a row of molybdenum tiles. Imaging with narrow-bandpass interference filters and high-resolution spectroscopy will be coupled to estimate divertor impurity influxes. Vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet spectrometers will allow connecting high-Z sources to SOL transport and core impurity content. The high-Z diagnostics suite complements the existing measurements for low-Z impurities (carbon and lithium), critical for the characterization of sputtering of high-Z materials.
In one popular description of the L-H transition, energy transfer to the mean flows directly depletes turbulence fluctuation energy, resulting in suppression of the turbulence and a corresponding transport bifurcation. However, electron parallel force balance couples nonzonal velocity fluctuations with electron pressure fluctuations on rapid timescales, comparable with the electron transit time. For this reason, energy in the nonzonal velocity stays in a fairly fixed ratio to the free energy in electron density fluctuations, at least for frequency scales much slower than electron transit. In order for direct depletion of the energy in turbulent fluctuations to cause the L-H transition, energy transfer via Reynolds stress must therefore drain enough energy to significantly reduce the sum of the free energy in nonzonal velocities and electron pressure fluctuations. At low k, the electron thermal free energy is much larger than the energy in nonzonal velocities, posing a stark challenge for this model of the L-H transition.
Spontaneous multi-keV electron generation in a low-RF-power axisymmetric mirror machine
X-ray emission shows the existence of multi-keV electrons in low-temperature, low-power, capacitively-coupled RF-heated magnetic-mirror plasmas that also contain a warm (300 eV) minority electron population. Though these warm electrons are initially passing particles, we suggest that collisionless scattering -- mu non-conservation in the static vacuum field -- is responsible for a minority of them to persist in the mirror cell for thousands of transits during which time a fraction are energized to a characteristic temperature of 3 keV, with some electrons reaching energies above 30 keV. A heuristic model of the heating by a Fermi-acceleration-like mechanism is presented, with mu non-conservation in the static vacuum field as an essential feature.
Toroidal rotation is critical for fusion in tokamaks, since it stabilizes instabilities that can otherwise cause disruptions or degrade confinement. Unlike present-day devices, ITER might not have enough neutral-beam torque to easily avoid these instabilities. We must therefore understand how the plasma rotates intrinsically, that is, without applied torque. Experimentally, torque-free plasmas indeed rotate, with profiles that are often non-flat and even non-monotonic. The rotation depends on many plasma parameters including collisionality and plasma current, and exhibits sudden bifurcations (rotation reversals) at critical parameter values.Since toroidal angular momentum is conserved in axisymmetric systems, and since experimentally inferred momentum transport is much too large to be neoclassical, theoretical work has focused on rotation drive by nondiffusive turbulent momentum fluxes. In the edge, intrinsic rotation relaxes to a steady state in which the total momentum outflux from the plasma vanishes. Ion drift orbits, scrape-off-layer flows, separatrix geometry, and turbulence intensity gradient all play a role. In the core, nondiffusive and viscous momentum fluxes balance to set the rotation gradient at each flux surface. Although many mechanisms have been proposed for the nondiffusive fluxes, most are treated in one of two distinct but related gyrokinetic formulations. In a radially local fluxtube, appropriate for rho star <<1, the lowest-order gyrokinetic formulations exhibit a symmetry that prohibits nondiffusive momentum flux for nonrotating plasmas in an up- down symmetric magnetic geometry with no ExB shear. Many symmetry-breaking mechanisms have been identified, but none have yet been conclusively demonstrated to drive a strong enough flux to explain commonly observed experimental rotation profiles. Radially global gyrokinetic simulations naturally include many symmetry-breaking mechanisms, and have shown cases with experimentally relevant levels of nondiffusive flux. These promising early results motivate further work to analyze, verify, and validate.This article provides a pedagogical introduction to intrinsic rotation in axisymmetric devices. Intended for both newcomers to the topic and experienced practitioners, the article reviews a broad range of topics including experimental and theoretical results for both edge and core rotation, while maintaining a focus on the underlying concepts.
This dataset contains all the model output used to generate the figures and data reported in the article "Climate, soil organic layer, and nitrogen jointly drive forest development after fire in the North American boreal zone". The data was generated during spring 2015 using the a modified version of the Ecosystem Demography model version 2, provided as a supplement accompanying the article. The data was generated using the computational resources supported by the PICSciE OIT High Performance Computing Center and Visualization Laboratory at Princeton University. The dataset contains a pdf Readme file which explains in detail how the data can be used. Users are recommended to go through this file before using the data.