The engineering limits of plasma facing components (PFCs) constrain the allowable operational space of tokamaks. Poorly managed heat fluxes that push the PFCs beyond their limits not only degrade core plasma performance via elevated impurities, but can also result in PFC failure due to thermal stresses or melting. Simple axisymmetric assumptions fail to capture the complex interaction between 3D PFC geometry and 2D or 3D plasmas. This results in fusion systems that must either operate with increased risk or reduce PFC loads, potentially through lower core plasma performance, to maintain a nominal safety factor. High precision 3D heat flux predictions are necessary to accurately ascertain the state of a PFC given the evolution of the magnetic equilibrium. A new code, the Heat flux Engineering Analysis Toolkit (HEAT), has been developed to provide high precision 3D predictions and analysis for PFCs. HEAT couples many otherwise disparate computational tools together into a single open source python package. Magnetic equilibrium, engineering CAD, finite volume solvers, scrape off layer plasma physics, visualization, high performace computing, and more, are connected in a single web-based user interface. Linux users may use HEAT without any software prerequisites via an appImage. This manuscript introduces HEAT, discusses the software architecture, presents first HEAT results, and outlines physics modules in development.
Lampert,Mate; Diallo,Ahmed; Myra,James R.; Zweben, Stewart J.
Edge localized modes (ELMs) are routinely observed in H-mode plasma regimes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Due to the explosive nature of the instability, only diagnostics with high temporal and spatial resolution could provide a detailed insight into the dynamics associated with the ELMs. Gas-puff imaging (GPI) at NSTX provides 2D measurements of the magnetic field aligned fluctuations (e.g. ELM filaments) in the scrape-off layer and the at the plasma edge with 2.5 us temporal and 10 mm optical resolution.A novel analysis technique was developed to estimate the frame-by-frame velocities and the spatial parameters of the dominant structures associated with the ELMs. The analysis was applied to single ELM events to characterize the ELM crash dynamics, and then extended to a database of 169 ELM events.Statistical analysis was performed in order to find the characterizing dynamics of the ELM crash. The results show that on average an ELM crash consists of a filament with a circular cross-section which is propelled outwards with a characterizing peak radial velocity of ~3.3 km/s. The radial velocity was found to be linearly dependent on the distance of the filament from the separatrix, which has never been seen before. The ELM filament is characterized by propagation in the ion-diamagnetic direction poloidally with a peak velocity of 11.4 km/s. The ELM crash lasts for approximately 100us until the radial propulsion settles back to the pre-ELM level. The experimental findings were compared with analytical theory. Two possible mechanisms were identified for explaining the observations: the curvature interchange model and the current-filament interaction model.
A matrix inversion technique is derived to calculate local ion temperature from line-integrated measurements of an extended emission source in an axisymmetric plasma which exactly corrects for both toroidal velocity and radial velocity components. Local emissivity and toroidal velocity can be directly recovered from line-integrated spectroscopic measurements, but an independent measurement of the radial velocity is necessary to complete the temperature inversion. The extension of this technique to handle the radial velocity is relevant for magnetic reconnection and merging compression devices where temperature inversion from spectroscopic measurements is desired. A simulation demonstrates the effects of radial velocity on the determination of ion temperature.
Rafiq T; Kaye S; Guttenfelder W; Weiland J; Schuster E; Anderson J; Luo L;
Microtearing mode (MTM) real frequency, growth rate, magnetic fluctuation amplitude and resulting electron thermal transport are studied in systematic NSTX scans of relevant plasma parameters. The dependency of the MTM real frequency and growth rate on plasma parameters, suitable for low and high collision NSTX discharges, is obtained by using the reduced MTM transport model [T. Rafiq, et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 062507 (2016)]. The plasma parameter dependencies are compared and found to be consistent with the results obtained from MTM using the Gyrokinetic GYRO code. The scaling trend of collision frequency and plasma beta is found to be consistent with the global energy confinement trend observed in the NSTX experiment. The strength of the magnetic fluctuation is found to be consistent with the gyrokinetic estimate.In earlier studies, it was found that the version of the Multi-Mode (MM) anomalous transport model, which did not contain the effect of MTMs, provided an appropriate description of the electron temperature profiles in standard tokamak discharges and not in spherical tokamaks. When the MM model, which involves transport associated with MTMs, is incorporated in the TRANSP code and is used in the study of electron thermal transport in NSTX discharges, it is observed that the agreement with the experimental electron temperature profile is substantially improved.
A new model for prediction of electron density and pressure profile shapes on NSTX and NSTX-U has been developed using neural networks. The model has been trained and tested on measured profiles from experimental discharges during the first operational campaign of NSTX-U. By projecting profiles onto empirically derived basis functions, the model is able to efficiently and accurately reproduce profile shapes. In order to project the performance of the model to upcoming NSTX-U operations, a large database of profiles from the operation of NSTX is used to test performance as a function of available data. The rapid execution time of the model is well suited to the planned applications, including optimization during scenario development activities, and real-time plasma control. A potential application of the model to real-time profile estimation is demonstrated.