These files collect and collate archival budget data for NASA’s various space science programs from 1959-2019 with a particular emphasis on lunar and planetary exploration. Numbers present top-line expenditures as recognized by NASA Headquarters in their annual Budget Estimates presented each year at the beginning of the Congressional appropriations cycle. Data was collected across several publicly available archival sources over the course of 2016-2019 as part of the NSF funded research project, "Pricing the Priceless Spacecraft" (Award #1633314).
This dataset comprises of data associated with the publication "Transferability of data-driven, many-body models for CO2 simulations in the vapor and liquid phases", which can be found at https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0080061. The data includes calculations for a Many-Body decomposition, virial coefficient calculations, orientational molecular scan energies, potential energy fields, correlation plots of training and testing data, vapor-liquid equilibrium simulations, liquid density simulations, and solid cell simulations.
The item included here is a collection of wave profiles collected and presented in the accompanying paper: Rucks, M. J., Winey, J. M., Toyoda, T., Gupta, Y. M., & Duffy, T. S. (in review). "Shock compression of fluorapatite to 120 GPa" Submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets.
This dataset includes individual CIF files with the refined structure of fluorapatite under compression to 61 GPa. The structures have been discussed in detail in the accompanying manuscript "Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of fluorapatite to 61 GPa"
A comprehensive set of spectroscopic diagnostics is planned in the National Spherical Torus Experi- ment Upgrade to connect measurements of molybdenum and tungsten divertor sources to scrape-o↵ layer (SOL) and core impurity transport, supporting the installation of high-Z plasma facing compo- nents which is scheduled to begin with a row of molybdenum tiles. Imaging with narrow-bandpass interference filters and high-resolution spectroscopy will be coupled to estimate divertor impurity influxes. Vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet spectrometers will allow connecting high-Z sources to SOL transport and core impurity content. The high-Z diagnostics suite complements the existing measurements for low-Z impurities (carbon and lithium), critical for the characterization of sputtering of high-Z materials.
In one popular description of the L-H transition, energy transfer to the mean flows directly depletes turbulence fluctuation energy, resulting in suppression of the turbulence and a corresponding transport bifurcation. However, electron parallel force balance couples nonzonal velocity fluctuations with electron pressure fluctuations on rapid timescales, comparable with the electron transit time. For this reason, energy in the nonzonal velocity stays in a fairly fixed ratio to the free energy in electron density fluctuations, at least for frequency scales much slower than electron transit. In order for direct depletion of the energy in turbulent fluctuations to cause the L-H transition, energy transfer via Reynolds stress must therefore drain enough energy to significantly reduce the sum of the free energy in nonzonal velocities and electron pressure fluctuations. At low k, the electron thermal free energy is much larger than the energy in nonzonal velocities, posing a stark challenge for this model of the L-H transition.
Spontaneous multi-keV electron generation in a low-RF-power axisymmetric mirror machine
X-ray emission shows the existence of multi-keV electrons in low-temperature, low-power, capacitively-coupled RF-heated magnetic-mirror plasmas that also contain a warm (300 eV) minority electron population. Though these warm electrons are initially passing particles, we suggest that collisionless scattering -- mu non-conservation in the static vacuum field -- is responsible for a minority of them to persist in the mirror cell for thousands of transits during which time a fraction are energized to a characteristic temperature of 3 keV, with some electrons reaching energies above 30 keV. A heuristic model of the heating by a Fermi-acceleration-like mechanism is presented, with mu non-conservation in the static vacuum field as an essential feature.
Toroidal rotation is critical for fusion in tokamaks, since it stabilizes instabilities that can otherwise cause disruptions or degrade confinement. Unlike present-day devices, ITER might not have enough neutral-beam torque to easily avoid these instabilities. We must therefore understand how the plasma rotates intrinsically, that is, without applied torque. Experimentally, torque-free plasmas indeed rotate, with profiles that are often non-flat and even non-monotonic. The rotation depends on many plasma parameters including collisionality and plasma current, and exhibits sudden bifurcations (rotation reversals) at critical parameter values.Since toroidal angular momentum is conserved in axisymmetric systems, and since experimentally inferred momentum transport is much too large to be neoclassical, theoretical work has focused on rotation drive by nondiffusive turbulent momentum fluxes. In the edge, intrinsic rotation relaxes to a steady state in which the total momentum outflux from the plasma vanishes. Ion drift orbits, scrape-off-layer flows, separatrix geometry, and turbulence intensity gradient all play a role. In the core, nondiffusive and viscous momentum fluxes balance to set the rotation gradient at each flux surface. Although many mechanisms have been proposed for the nondiffusive fluxes, most are treated in one of two distinct but related gyrokinetic formulations. In a radially local fluxtube, appropriate for rho star <<1, the lowest-order gyrokinetic formulations exhibit a symmetry that prohibits nondiffusive momentum flux for nonrotating plasmas in an up- down symmetric magnetic geometry with no ExB shear. Many symmetry-breaking mechanisms have been identified, but none have yet been conclusively demonstrated to drive a strong enough flux to explain commonly observed experimental rotation profiles. Radially global gyrokinetic simulations naturally include many symmetry-breaking mechanisms, and have shown cases with experimentally relevant levels of nondiffusive flux. These promising early results motivate further work to analyze, verify, and validate.This article provides a pedagogical introduction to intrinsic rotation in axisymmetric devices. Intended for both newcomers to the topic and experienced practitioners, the article reviews a broad range of topics including experimental and theoretical results for both edge and core rotation, while maintaining a focus on the underlying concepts.